Why Is Black Friday Called Black Friday?

How Black Friday Got Its Name

How Black Friday Got Its Name
••• Photo by Carlo Allegri/Getty Images

Black Friday is the name given to the shopping day after Thanksgiving. It was originally called Black Friday because so many people went out to shop that it caused traffic accidents and sometimes even violence. The Philadelphia Police Department coined the phrase to describe the mayhem surrounding the congestion of pedestrian and auto traffic in the downtown area.

The name was first recorded in 1966 by Earl Apfelbaum, a dealer in rare stamps. In his ad, he said, "'Black Friday' is the name that the Philadelphia Police Department gave to the Friday following Thanksgiving Day. It is not a term of endearment for them. 'Black Friday' officially opens the Christmas shopping season in center city. It usually brings massive traffic jams and over-crowded sidewalks as the downtown stores are mobbed from opening to closing." 

When Black Friday Became a Positive Name

Retailers did not appreciate the negative connotation associated with a black day of the week. They had a good point, since the media used it to describe stock market crashes.  For example, Black Monday was the name journalists gave to October 19, 1987. On that day, the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 22 percent. The Dow's closing history shows that was the largest percentage drop on one day in stock market history.

Another dark day, Black Thursday, occurred on October 24, 1929. It was the day that signaled the start of the Great Depression. It was followed the next week by Black Tuesday. On that day, the stock market lost 11 percent despite attempts by major investors to support stock prices. That destroyed any confidence investors had in the stock market, which in those days was perceived to be the economy. Many had invested their life savings and were entirely wiped out.

No wonder retailers wanted to make the name "Black Friday" mean something positive. To them, the Friday after Thanksgiving was one of the most profitable days of the year. To compensate, they decided to follow the adage, "If you can't beat 'em, join 'em."

Retailers changed the name to reflect their success. Accountants use black to signify profit when recording each day's book entries. They use red to indicate loss. Therefore, Black Friday means profitable Friday to retailing and to the economy. Retail and consumer spending drive almost 70 percent of U.S. gross domestic product.

Worst Black Friday Violence

Black Friday crowds hunting bargains still give the police headaches. Violence has become so bad the day should be renamed "Black-eye Friday." Since 2010, Black Friday violence has resulted in 10 deaths and 111 injuries.

The states with the most Black Friday violence are Tennessee, Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana and Nevada. On the other hand, the safest holiday shopping is in the Midwest, Pacific Northwest, and New England.

The most violence seems to occur at Walmart, leading to the Twitter hashtag each year #Walmart fights. The retailer was the site of 57.1 percent of Black Friday incidents within the last decade. The next most violent locations, shopping malls, were the scene of 17.9 percent of the incidents. Thirty percent involved trampling and another 26.7 percent were shootings.

In 2017, five people were injured in Black Friday violence. Brawls forced an Alabama shopping mall to close.

In 2016, three people were shot in separate mall incidents in New Jersey, Nevada, and Tennessee. The New Jersey man died from his wounds.

In 2013, police shot a Chicago Kohl’s shoplifter as he fled in his car. He was dragging an officer who was stuck halfway into the vehicle. 

In 2012, two people were shot outside of a Walmart in Tallahassee Florida. They were fighting over a parking space.  

Walmart's consumer electronics department seems to be the most dangerous place. In 2011, a woman pepper-sprayed a crowd at a Walmart in Los Angeles. She was trying to get a Wii for 60 percent off. The year before, crowds at a Sacramento Walmart forced the store to evacuate when they started pushing and shoving to get deals on consumer electronics at 5:30 am.

On Black Friday 2009, another California Walmart, this time in Rancho Cucamonga, needed police protection from unruly crowds — again, in the early-morning hours in the consumer electronics department. The store was briefly closed a few hours after another store in nearby Upland was closed.

The worst Black Friday occurred in 2008 when a man was trampled to death. Despite being 6'5" and 270 pounds, temporary worker Jdimytai Damour died of asphyxiation when crowds stampeded into as New York Walmart. At least 2,000 people broke down the doors, trapping Damour in a vestibule where he suffocated. Eleven other shoppers were also injured, including a pregnant woman. The police have a right to call Black Friday by a negative name.