What Is the Minimum Conventional Loan Down Payment?

Requirements for conventional loans may be less strict than you think

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A conventional loan is the most common type of loan used to buy a home. A conventional loan might work for you with a decent credit score and solid minimum down payment, but just how much money do you need for a minimum down payment for a conventional loan? 

Key Takeaways

  • The minimum down payment for a conventional loan depends on several factors, including the sales price and the borrower’s qualifications.
  • The minimum down payment for a conventional loan can be as low as 3% of the sales price.
  • Borrowers who want to avoid paying private mortgage insurance should plan to pay at least 20% of the sales price as a down payment.

What Is a Conventional Loan?

Conventional loans are mortgages that aren’t insured or backed by government agencies. They come from private lenders, and while most follow government rules and regulations, they aren’t offered or backed by government entities. Those that follow government rules and regulations are referred to as “conforming loans."

Conventional loans usually require private mortgage insurance (PMI) if you put down less than 20% of the sales price as a down payment. Private mortgage insurance is an additional premium added onto your monthly mortgage payment. It offers protection to the lender in case you fall behind or miss mortgage payments.

You can remove PMI when you reach 20% equity in your home, based on the original sales price. Your lender is required to remove it when you achieve 22% equity in your loan.

Minimum Down Payment for Conventional Loans

Although 20% is often suggested for a minimum down payment, it’s not a requirement. You can put as much down as you’d like, or as little as 3%, depending on your lender and the loan.

A 20% down payment avoids PMI, so your monthly payments will be lower compared to a borrower who does pay PMI. Using our mortgage calculator, here’s what the difference looks like for a borrower with a good credit score and a 30-year fixed mortgage for homes at different price points—$250,000, $500,000, and $900,000.

Sale Price Down Payment Interest Rate Principal & Interest Taxes & Insurance PMI Monthly Payment
$250,000 20% = $50,000 3.125% $856.75 $444.33 $0 $1,301.08
$250,000 5% = $12,500 3.125% $1,017.39 $444.33 $148.44 $1,610.16
$500,000 20% = $100,000 3.125% $1,713.50 $777.67 $0 $2,491.17
$500,000 5% = $25,000 3.125% $2,034.78 $777.67 $296.88 $3,109.33
$900,000 20% = $180,000 3.125% $3,084.30 $1311.00 $0 $4,395.30
$900,000 5% = $45,000 3.125% $3,662.61 $1311.00 $543.38 $5,507.99

The difference in the monthly payment is $309 more for the buyer with PMI compared to the one who doesn’t have to pay it. This amount includes the PMI payment itself, plus additional interest expense. That’s an extra $3,708 per year or $55,620 over 15 years if you pay this until you’re midway through your 30-year loan, when your lender will remove PMI regardless of your equity.

PMI is required for conventional loans that don’t have a 20% down payment, but having that much as a down payment isn’t required. But keep in mind that you’ll have an additional PMI expense if you choose this option.

There’s no one minimum down payment for everyone because each homebuyer brings their own financial situation to a home loan, including debt-to-income ratio, income, and credit score.

Other Conventional Loan Requirements

Conforming conventional mortgages adhere to underwriting guidelines set by the mortgage financing giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. These Government Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs) play a major role in the mortgage market. The GSEs purchased 62% of the loans originated in the first half of 2020, shaping the entire market. Because of the GSEs' influence, 97% of loans that originated in the first half of 2020 were conforming.

  • Your credit score: Conventional loans have credit score requirements that vary based on lender and loan. The higher your credit score, the lower your interest rate. Getting the lowest interest rate available means you’ll pay less in interest over the total life of your mortgage. You should have at least a 620 credit score if you want to get a conventional loan.
  • Your DTI: Your debt-to-income ratio (DTI) is another factor that lenders look at. This ratio is all your monthly debts divided by your gross monthly income. Your DTI shouldn’t exceed 43%, but the lower it is, the more likely you are to get approved for the full loan amount you’re requesting. A low DTI tells lenders you can comfortably pay your mortgage in the event of an emergency.
  • The full loan amount: Conventional conforming loans have a maximum amount you can borrow. It was $548,250 for most counties in 2021, or $822,375 for high cost-of-living areas. This increases to $647,200 in 2022, or $970,800 for high cost-of-living areas. You may want to explore other financing options if you think your home price exceeds these amounts.

Nonconforming Loan Options

Conventional loans might work for a lot of people, but they may not be the right fit for everyone. Make sure you meet the minimum requirements before completing a conventional loan application. Talk to your realtor or mortgage broker to find out if you qualify. They may suggest other options if you don’t.

  • FHA: The Federal Housing Administration backs loans for borrowers with credit scores as low as 500, depending on the lender, and with down payments as low as 3.5%.
  • USDA: The U.S. Department of Agriculture backs home loans for buyers in rural areas on low or moderate incomes. You can make as little as $0 as a down payment with a USDA loan. There’s no credit requirement.
  • VA: The Department of Veterans Affairs backs VA loans, available to military personnel and their families. There’s no down payment required and you can use it many times throughout your life if you qualify.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How much do you have to put down on a conventional loan without PMI?

You’ll need a down payment of at least 20% if you want a conventional loan without private mortgage insurance. It’s not required to qualify for a conventional loan, but it does help you avoid the extra PMI expense.

What credit score do you need to get a conventional loan?

You’ll need at least a 620 credit score to qualify for a conventional loan with most lenders. You may want to try a USDA loan if you don’t meet the minimum credit score requirements, which doesn’t have a credit score requirement, or an FHA loan, which lets you borrow with a credit score of at least 500.

Article Sources

  1. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. "What Is Mortgage Insurance and How Does It Work?"

  2. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. "When Can I Remove Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) From My Loan?"

  3. Federal Housing Finance Administration. "What Types of Mortgages Do Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac Acquire?"

  4. The Mortgage Reports. "Credit Score Requirements to Buy a House: 2022 Guide."

  5. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. "What Is a Debt-to-Income Ratio? Why Is the 43% Debt-to-Income Ratio Important?"

  6. Federal Housing Finance Agency. "FHFA Announces Conforming Loan Limits for 2021."

  7. Federal Housing Finance Agency. “FHFA Announces Conforming Loan Limits for 2022.”

  8. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. "HUD 4155.1, Mortgage Credit Analysis for Mortgage Insurance," Pages 4-A-3, 5-B-2.

  9. U.S. Department of Agriculture. "Single Family Home Loan Guarantees."

  10. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. "VA Guaranteed Loan."

  11. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. "HUD 4155.1, Mortgage Credit Analysis for Mortgage Insurance," Page 4-A-3.