What Is the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)?

EEOC on Unlawful Discrimination Against Pregnant Workers and Workers with Caregiving Responsibilities
US Department of Labor/Flickr

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a federal agency charged with enforcing laws prohibiting job discrimination.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

Legislation covered by the EEOC include laws which prohibit discrimination, provide for equal pay,

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) which prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

   Federal contractors and subcontractors must take affirmative action to ensure equal access to employment without considering race,  color, religion, sex, or national origin.  Employers are prohibited from discrimination in any phase of employment including hiring, termination, and promotions.

The Equal Pay Act of 1963 (EPA) which protects men and women who perform substantially equal work in the same establishment from sex-based wage discrimination. Employers are prohibited from offering a lower wage to women (or men) if another man (or woman) is doing the same work at a higher wage. Labor organizations or their agents are also prohibited from influencing employers to offer different levels of pay to male and female employees.

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) which protects individuals who are 40 years of age or older.  The ADEA applies to organizations with 20 or more workers including governmental entities.

  Employers are allowed to give preference to older workers over younger ones.

Title I and Title V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) which prohibit employment discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities in the private sector, and in state and local governments.

Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which prohibit discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities who work in the federal government.

The Civil Rights Act of 1991, which, among other things, provides monetary damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination.

EEOC Oversight and Enforcement

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces all of these laws and provides oversight and coordination of all federal equal employment opportunity regulations, practices, and policies.

Also Known As: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, EEOC

Example: Susan filed a claim with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) because she believed she was discriminated against because of her age.

Read More: How to File an Employment Discrimination Claim


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