OPEC and Its Goals, Members, and History
What Are Its Top Three Goals?
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is an organization of 12 oil-producing countries. It controls 61 percent of the world's oil exports and holds 80 percent of the world's proven oil reserves. OPEC's decisions have a huge impact on future oil prices.
OPEC's Three Goals
OPEC's first goal is to keep prices stable. It wants to make sure its members get what a good price for their oil. Since oil is a fairly uniform commodity, most consumers base their buying decisions on nothing other than price.
What's a good price? OPEC has traditionally said it was between $70 and $80 per barrel. At those prices, OPEC countries have enough oil to last 113 years. If prices drop below that target, OPEC members agree to restrict supply to push prices higher.
But Iran wants to lower prices to $60 a barrel. It believes a lower price will drive out U.S. shale oil producers, who need a higher margin. Iran's break-even price is just over $50 a barrel. Saudi Arabia needs $70 a barrel to break even.
Without this agreement, individual oil-exporting countries would wind up increasing the supply to make more national revenue. By competing with each other, they would drive prices even lower. That would stimulate even more global demand. OPEC countries would run out of their most precious resource that much faster. Instead, OPEC members agree to produce only enough to keep the price high for all members.
When prices are higher than $80 a barrel, other countries have the incentive to drill more expensive oil fields.
Sure enough, once oil prices got closer to $100 a barrel, it became cost effective for Canada to explore its shale oil fields. U.S. companies used fracking to open up the Bakken oil fields for production. As a result, non-OPEC supply increased.
OPEC's second goal is to reduce oil price volatility. For maximum efficiency, oil extraction must run 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
Closing facilities could physically damage oil installations and even the fields themselves. Ocean drilling is especially difficult and expensive to shut down. It is then in OPEC's best interests to keep world prices stable. A slight modification in production is usually enough to restore price stability.
For example, in June 2008, oil prices hit an all-time high of $143 per barrel. OPEC responded by agreeing to produce a little more oil. This move brought prices down. But the global financial crisis sent oil prices plummeting to $33.73 per barrel in December. OPEC responded by reducing the supply. This helped prices to again stabilize.
OPEC third goal is to adjust the world's oil supply in response to shortages. For example, it replaced the oil lost during the Gulf Crisis in 1990. Several million barrels of oil per day were cut off when Saddam Hussein's armies destroyed refineries in Kuwait. OPEC also increased production in 2011 during the crisis in Libya.
The Oil and Energy Ministers from the OPEC members meet at least twice a year to coordinate their oil production policies. Each member country abides by an honor system in which everyone agrees to produce a certain amount. If a country winds up producing more, there is no sanction or penalty.
Each country is responsible for reporting its own production. In this scenario, there is room for "cheating." A country won't go too far over its quota though unless it wants to risk being kicked out of OPEC.
Despite its power, OPEC cannot completely control the price of oil. In some countries, additional taxes are imposed on gasoline and other oil-based end products to promote conservation. Oil prices are also set by the oil futures market. Much of the oil price is determined by commodities traders. That's the underlying reason why oil prices are so high.
OPEC currently has 12 active members. Ecuador suspended its membership in 1992 and reactivated it in 2009.
|OPEC Country||Joined||Located||Oil Produced (mbpd) 2015||Comments|
|Indonesia||1962||Asia||0.69||Will resign rather than cut output.|
|Iran||1960||Middle East||3.15||Will rise by 0.5 mbpd due to nuclear treaty.|
|Iraq||1960||Middle East||3.5||Needs funds for Iraq War.|
|Saudi Arabia||1960||Middle East||10.19||Produces one-third of total.|
|United Arab Emirates||1967||Middle East||2.99|
|Venezuela||1960||Central America||2.65||Funds failing government.|
Saudi Arabia is by far the largest producer, contributing almost one-third of total OPEC oil production. It is really the only member that produces enough alone to materially impact the world's supply. For this reason, it has more authority and influence than the other countries.
On November 30, 2017, OPEC agreed to continue withholding 2 percent of global oil supply. That continues the policy it formed on November 30, 2016, when it agreed to cut production by 1.2 million barrels. Starting January 2017, it will produce 32.5 million barrels per day. That's still above its average 2015 level of 32.32 mbpd. The agreement exempted Nigeria and Libya. It gave Iraq its first quotas since the 1990s. Russia, not an OPEC member, voluntarily agreed to cut production.
The cut came a year after OPEC had raised its production quota to 31.5 mbpd on December 4, 2015. OPEC was struggling to maintain market share. Its share fell from 44.5 percent in 2012 to 41.8 percent in 2014. That's because of a 16 percent increase in U.S. shale oil production. As the oil supply rose, prices fell from $108.54 in April 2012 to $34.72 in December 2015. That was one of the biggest drops in oil price history.
OPEC waited to cut oil production because it didn't want to see its market share drop further. It produces oil more cheaply than its U.S. competition. The cartel toughed it out until many of the shale companies went bankrupt. That created a boom and bust in shale oil.
In 1960, five OPEC countries formed an alliance to regulate the supply and price of oil. These countries realized they had a nonrenewable resource. If they competed with each other, the price of oil would be so low that they would run out sooner than if oil prices were higher.
OPEC held its first meeting held its first meeting September 10-14, 1960, in Baghdad, Iraq. The five founding members were Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. OPEC registered with the United Nations November 6, 1962.
OPEC didn't flex its muscle until the 1973 oil embargo. It responded to a sudden drop in the U.S. dollar's value after President Nixon abandoned the gold standard. Since oil contracts are priced in dollars, the revenues of oil exporters fell when the dollar fell. In response to the embargo, the United States created the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. For more, see Gold Standard History.
Non-OPEC Oil-Producing Countries
Many non-OPEC members also voluntarily adjust their oil production in response to OPEC's decisions. In the 1990s, they increased production to take advantage of OPEC's restraints. That resulted in low oil prices and profits for everyone. These cooperating non-OPEC members are Mexico, Norway, Oman and Russia.
Oil shale producers did not learn that lesson. They kept pumping oil, sending prices plummeting in 2014. As a result, many went below their break-even price of $65 a barrel. OPEC did not step in to lower its production. Instead, it allowed prices to fall to maintain its own market share. That's because the break-even price is much lower for most of its members. It's $7 a barrel for Saudi Arabia and $13 a barrel for Iraq.
The OPEC of Natural Gas Exporters
The Gas Exporting Countries’ Forum is a cooperative organization of countries that produce natural gas. Its members produce 40 percent of the world's natural gas and control 67percent of its reserves. Its purpose is to agree on the issues facing natural gas producers. Members coordinate their efforts to preserve their natural resources. Their stated purpose does not include controlling the price of natural gas.
Nevertheless, it is an unstated possibility. If GECF members formed a cartel, it would rival OPEC in strategic importance.
GECF has twelve members. Russia is the leading member and is also the world's largest producer of natural gas. Iran has the world’s third-largest gas reserves, while Qatar has the fourth largest reserves. Other members include Algeria, Bolivia, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Libya, Nigeria, Trinidad and Tobago, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. The seven countries that participate as observers are Azerbaijan, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, and Peru. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have also expressed interest.