A ticker symbol is a short code used to identify a company that issues stocks or securities. These identification codes were designed by the exchanges and kept short to help investors and traders easily identify them.
Knowing an institution's ticker symbol allows you to access financial and investment-related information about the company quickly.
Definition and Examples of a Stock Ticker
A stock ticker symbol is a short sequence of letters that serves as a company's unique identifier in the trade market. Companies issue stocks or bonds to raise capital, and if their issues trade on public exchanges, they need to be uniquely identified to be recognized by investors or traders quickly.
In 1867 Edward Calahan invented a device that printed the current prices of stocks. It was later improved by Thomas Edison, and became the working model for many broker offices. The device made a ticking sound, so the symbols representing a company on the exchanges came to be known as its ticker.
Tickers are alphanumeric codes with up to four letters on the New York Stock Exchange. The Nasdaq uses up to five. The Coca-Cola Company, for instance, uses the ticker symbol, "KO."
Companies can offer more than one type of stock, so there is a need to distinguish between them. Tickers can add an extra letter or use a period or hyphen within the code to symbolize their different stocks. Google (Alphabet Inc.) uses two tickers—GOOG and GOOGL to designate common and preferred shares. Berkshire Hathaway has two classes of shares on the market, BRK.B and BRK.A, differentiating shareholder voting rights.
How a Ticker Symbol Works
Using a stock ticker is relatively straightforward. You search on your broker's or exchange's website and access most of the investment-related information you need.
In general, you'll see the company's dividend history, stock chart, stock split history or current ask and bid price. Most brokers and exchanges also list daily volume, dividend rate, price-to-earnings ratio and other relevant trading information.
How Symbols Are Picked
Usually, companies can pick their ticker based on availability of the exchange they list on. If their preference is open, they get their choice. If not, the exchange asks for other ticker symbol options.
Ticker Symbols Are More Than an Identifier
Market competition in any industry is tight, so tickers can help a company establish or market its brand. Stock tickers that create words that are similar to what a company does or the company name are highly contested—often investors become confused by similarities.
The ticker 'COIN' belongs to Nasdaq-listed cryptocurrency exchange Coinbase, while 'WORK' is the ticker for workplace messaging platform Slack Technologies. Dynamic Materials Corporation, which is a metalworking company, uses the ticker symbol "BOOM."
Certain exchange-traded funds also have creative ticker symbols. For example, Procure Space ETF trades with the ticker 'UFO', while Procure Space ETF trades with the ticker 'UFO.'
What It Means for Individual Investors
Knowing an institution's ticker symbol is essential when it comes to buying or selling shares. If a trading friend talks about a trending stock and another trader enters the wrong ticker symbol while making a trade, that trader ends up with the wrong asset—which can be costly.
Tickers allow traders to set up watch lists or use software to monitor their investment's price. This makes identifying trades much easier since tickers can be categorized in different ways to facilitate the investor.
When a ticker symbol has an "E" after its name, that means the company has not met regulatory requirements for financial reporting. Once they meet those requirements, the exchanges remove the letters; if they fail to do so, the company can be delisted and banned from trading until they meet the conditions.
Exercise caution when choosing stocks. Ensure you distinguish between similarly named companies by looking at their tickers and names.
Tickers Can Be Confusing
A small company named Zoom Technologies (ZTNO), confused by investors for Zoom Video Communications (ZM) in 2020, experienced a sudden spike in trading after companies began using the Zoom communications platform to work remotely during quarantine.
The Securities and Exchange Commission temporarily suspended trades of the stock due to concerns over investor confusion, but many investors had already succumbed to herd behavior investing.
Stock tickers are short symbols made of a few letters that stand for company stock, so they can be easily recognized in the exchanges.
Companies can choose stock ticker symbols to reflect their image and to differentiate between types of stock.
As an investor, it pays to be familiar with a company's stock ticker and to double-check for accuracy before making trades, since many ticker names are alike.