What Is a Pallet?

The basics about pallets, including pallet sizes,designs and materials

LPR

This article addresses basic questions such as:

  • What is a pallet?
  • What are the basic types of pallet material?
  • What are the main pallet designs?
  • What are the major pallet sizes or pallet dimensions?

What is a pallet?

A pallet is a horizontal platform, typically affixed to a superstructure and a bottom deck which allows it to be lifted and moved by material handling equipment such as lift trucks and conveyors as well as to placed in appropriate storage systems and transport vehicles.

The pallet provides the base for assembling, storing, handling and transporting materials and products. Additionally, a pallet provides protection to the product on it.

The pallet is the most common base for the unit load, which is a system which includes the pallet, goods stacked atop it, as well as the stretch wrap, adhesive, pallet collar, or other means of unit load stabilization. 

The history of pallets has been integral to the development of modern logistics. Additional refinements were added to pallet design and management during World War 2. For example, pallet reuse in the supply chain became increasingly practiced. The pallet pooling concept began to be seriously discussed during this time and has evolved into a key strategy for pallet suppliers.

What materials are ssed for pallets?

Pallets are made from various types of materials. The wood pallet dominates the marketplace, followed by plastic pallets, paper pallets, wood composite pallets and metal pallets.

 

Wood pallets offer a great combination of weight, stiffness, durability and cost, not to mention a widespread pallet recycling infrastructure. Custom pallets sizes can be easily fabricated from timber components. Plastic pallets typically are more expensive than wood pallets for comparable applications but are valued for such attributes as extreme durability, the precision of manufacture, and ease of sanitation.

Other important buying considerations include pallet weight, and considerations for export pallets, such as ISPM-15 compliance or exemption for international shipping.

What are the main pallet designs?

NWPCA’s Uniform Standard for Wood Pallets begins by classifying pallets as either stringer or block. It then goes on to differentiate the common entry types of wood pallets, which refers to how many directions they may be entered by pallet trucks and forklifts. These include two-way entry pallets, which can be entered at either end, four-way pallets, which can be entered from all four sides, and partial four-way entry pallets, which can be entered by forklifts and pallet trucks at each end, but only by forklifts through notched stringers on the sides.

Pallet style refers to whether a pallet has a single or double face (single or both top and bottom deck), and whether a pallet is reversible (either side can be used for the top deck) or non-reversible (having top and bottom deck but only one intended for use as a top deck). The standard also discusses top and bottom deck options. A single faced pallet is also known as a skid.

What are the main pallet sizes?

Although pallets may be fabricated to various custom sizes, there are some typical sizes that are most commonly used.

It should be pointed out that in describing the size of pallets, one starts with the stringer or stringer board length, first, followed by the pallet width, typically the length of the deck boards.The main pallet size or pallet dimension in North America is 48x40 inches. There are six pallet sizes recognized by ISO. Here is a list, including the region most commonly used:

  • 1219x1016 (48x40 inches) – North America
  • 1000x1200 – Europe and Asia
  • 1165x1165 – Australia
  • 1067x1067 – North America, Europe, and Asia
  • 1100x1100 – Asia
  • 800x1200 - Europe

For more information about pallets, visit my Pallet Recycling Article Series or visit my www.packagingrevolution.net website.