What Constitutes a Millionaire?

Liquid assets and net worth determine if you're a millionaire

Calculating net worth

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The word "millionaire" is commonly bantered about in casual conversations. The term usually evokes images of celebrities, athletes, and business leaders. We assume Kim Kardashian, LeBron James, and the CEO of Pepsi are all millionaires.

Net Worth

The technical definition of "millionaire" is a person (or a married couple) with a net worth greater than $1 million U.S. dollars (or equal currency).

Net worth represents a person's assets minus their liabilities. Net worth is described as "what you own minus what you owe." However, defining a millionaire is so not cut-and-dry, especially when you factor in assets that are not liquid. 

A Millionaire's Profile

Let's say that John Doe has the following assets:

  • House: $350,000
  • Car: $10,000
  • Retirement Fund: $600,000
  • Stock Fund: $80,000
  • Mutual Fund: $100,000
  • Re-Sale Value of Items in His Home (Clothes, TV, furniture, art, and antiques): $20,000
  • Cash: $10,000
  • Total Assets: $1,170,000

Let's also imagine that John Doe has the following liabilities:

  • Mortgage: $120,000
  • Car Loan: $5,000
  • Total Liabilities: $125,000

According to the formula of assets versus liabilities, John Doe is a millionaire. However, one school of thought considers John Doe a millionaire while another school of thought disagrees.

A Millionaire?

The side in favor would point out that the value of John's assets equal $1.17 million, and his liabilities total $125,000. That means his total net worth (assets minus liabilities) is $1,045,000. By definition, that makes him a millionaire

Not a Millionaire?

The side that argues "no" would say that the value of his home, his car, and his personal belongings, such as his clothes, TV, furniture, art, and antiques, should not count. After all, he's most likely not going to liquidate those assets or sell them for cash. Also, he needs to live somewhere and presumably needs to drive a car. He needs to wear clothes, eat at a table, and sit on a couch. His art and antiques may not have any resale value or only be of personal value.

What to include in net worth calculations is commonly subject to debate.

Liquid Assets and Net Worth

Those who would argue Joe is not a millionaire might say only his liquid assets should be considered. These include his mutual funds, stock funds, and cash. Some people would also count the value of his retirement account – others wouldn't, given that those assets are protected from bankruptcy filings. Either way, John Doe is not a millionaire once those personal belongings are left out of the equation.

Yet another school of thought would adjust the value of John's house, car, and personal possessions. Yes, he needs to live somewhere, but he doesn't need a $350,000 house. They would "credit" him with a housing allowance, and count any excess toward his net worth.

In the end, there is no agreement as to whether or not John Doe is a millionaire, but one thing is certain: John Doe doesn't have a huge amount of cash in the bank. Most of his money is tied up in housing and investments. Just because he may be a millionaire on paper doesn't mean he can spend as lavishly as Kim Kardashian can.

Article Sources

  1. Charles Schwab. "Your Personal Net Worth," Accessed Dec. 4, 2019.

  2. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. "Building Wealth: Chapter 1: Learn the Language," Accessed Dec. 4, 2019.