Special dividends are extra, one-time dividend payments that often come when a company has unexpected cash on hand. They should be treated differently than regular company dividends.
Learn why a special dividend can sometimes signal trouble.
What Are Special Dividends?
Special dividends usually take the form of cash and may be issued when a company has unusually strong earnings. Unlike regular dividends, which recur at regular intervals, a special dividend is separate from and does not increase the size of the regular dividend.
- Alternate Names: One-Time Dividends, Extra Dividends
How Special Dividends Work
While special dividends are one-time payments, they are similar to regular dividends in that they are tied to how many individual shares are owned. To explain how they work, let's first explain regular dividends.
Regular dividends are usually quite predictable and are paid quarterly. The Coca-Cola Co., for example, paid 41 cents per share to investors every three months in 2020. This was up 1 cent from its quarterly dividend in 2019. Based on April 2021 share prices, that’s a yield of 3.15%, which is a relatively solid return.
The amount of a company’s dividend can vary, but usually does not change drastically from one payout period to the next. In the case of Coca-Cola, quarterly dividends have generally risen by only a cent or two each year since 2013.
The most financially sound companies have a history of paying dividends every quarter and increasing the dividends on an annual basis as their revenues and profits grow.
Special dividends, meanwhile, should be treated completely different from regular dividends. They usually come when a company realizes it has a lot of cash on hand or has had an unusually strong earnings period. A special dividend is usually a one-time payment and may never be repeated. Thus, it should not be considered when calculating a company’s dividend yield.
Types of Special Dividends
Companies that have issued special dividends include Camping World, which announced a 77-cents-per-share special dividend in November 2020. While special dividends are usually a one-time occasion, the strength of the outdoor and recreational vehicle market during COVID-19 lifted sales sufficiently to make multiple special dividends in 2020.
Australian mining company BHP made headlines in 2018 when it announced it would distribute $5.2 billion USD to shareholders in the form of a special dividend of $1.02 USD per share. The company also bought back shares worth $5.2 billion USD. The funds for the special dividend and buyback came from the sale of the company’s U.S. shale oil business.
Special dividends are common among Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs), which are required to pay out most of their net earnings to shareholders.
Recent special dividends from REITs have included KBS, which made an extra distribution of $2.95 per share in 2018. Piedmont Office Realty Trust issued a 50-cent-per-share payment in 2017.
In some rare cases, such as Camping World, special dividends have been distributed more than once in a short period of time. A prominent example of this involved Ford Motor Co., which issued three special dividends over a three-year span. It paid a special dividend of 25-cents-per-share in January 2016, followed by a 5-cent special dividend in 2017, then 13 cents in January 2018.
Special dividends can have their drawbacks and are not always met with universal praise
Disadvantages of Special Dividends
Special dividends can prove to be problematic for investors at tax time. Dividends from stocks held in taxable accounts are taxed at the normal income rate of between 10% and 37%, depending on your total income.
While investors may be able to anticipate and plan for regular dividends, special dividends often come as a surprise and could result in a sizable, unexpected tax obligation.
Not everyone agrees that issuing a special discount is the right move for a company to make when it has a lot of cash on hand.
Instead, the company could use the cash to make acquisitions, invest in research and development or product lines, or simply keep it as a cushion for a rainy day. Some people also argue that extra cash should be used to pay workers bonuses or higher wages.
Some stock market observers contend that a special dividend could be a sign that a company has struggled to identify new investments or acquisitions.
In 2004, Microsoft announced a special dividend of $3 per share. While shareholders were happy to receive the extra cash, they also wondered why they were receiving money instead of seeing it go to expand the business. By issuing a special dividend, Microsoft may have sent a message to shareholders that it had not identified ways to generate more revenue and higher returns.
- Special dividends are one-time dividend payments companies make when they have unexpected cash on hand.
- They have no direct impact on the regular dividend price.
- It's unusual for a special dividend to happen more than once, but on occasion it does.
- Critics say companies that issue special dividends may be signaling they have nothing better to do with their money, such as invest in future growth.