Understanding Bid and Ask Prices in Trading
The stock market functions like an auction where investors—whether individuals, corporations, or governments—buy and trade securities. It's important to know the different options you have for buying and selling, and a large portion of this is understanding bid and ask prices. Unlike most things that consumers purchase, stock prices are set by both the buyer and the seller.
The buyer states how much they're willing to pay for the stock, which represents the bid price, and the seller names their price, known as the ask price. It's the role of the stock exchanges and the whole broker-specialist system to facilitate the coordination of the bid and ask prices—a service that comes with its own expense, which affects the stock's price.
Once you place an order to buy or sell a stock, it gets processed based on a set of rules that determine which trades get executed first. If your main concern is buying or selling the stock as soon as possible, you can place a market order, which means you'll take whatever price the market hands you.
You can see the bid and ask prices for a stock if you have access to the proper online pricing systems, and you'll notice that they are never the same; the ask price is always a little higher than the bid price. You'll pay the ask price if you're buying the stock, and you'll receive the bid price if you are selling the stock. The difference between the bid and ask price is called the spread, and it's kept as a profit by the broker or specialist who is handling the transaction. In actuality, the bid-ask spread amount goes to pay several fees in addition to the broker's commission.
The broker's commission is not the same commission you'd pay to a retail broker.
Certain large firms, called market makers, can set a bid-ask spread by offering to both buy and sell a given stock. For example, the market maker would quote a bid-ask spread for the stock as $20.40/$20.45, where $20.40 represents the price that the market maker would buy the stock, and $20.45 is the price that the market maker would sell the stock.
The difference, or spread, benefits the market maker because it represents profit to the firm. Because prices constantly move, especially for actively traded stocks, you can't know what price you'll get in a trade if you're a buyer or a seller unless you use specific market orders when trading the stock to lock in a certain price.
If you want your order placed almost instantly, you can choose to place a market order, which goes to the top of the list of pending trades. The downside to this is that you'll receive either the lowest or highest possible price available on the market. If you submit a market sell order, you'll receive the lowest buying price, and if you submit a market buy order, you'll receive the highest selling price.
Generally, market orders should be avoided when possible; they're best used in situations where you need to buy or sell an investment immediately, and your concern is timing and not price differences.
The Bottom Line
There are ways around the bid-ask spread, but most investors are better off sticking with this established system that works well, even if it does take a little ding out of your profit. If you consider branching out, experiment with a paper-trading account before using real money.
Advanced strategies are for seasoned investors, and beginners may find themselves in a worse position than they began. This isn't to say that you won't ever get to the point of using them and maybe even excelling with them, but you're probably better off sticking to basic rules when you're starting out and just getting your feet wet.
The Balance does not provide tax, investment, or financial services and advice. The information is being presented without consideration of the investment objectives, risk tolerance or financial circumstances of any specific investor and might not be suitable for all investors. Past performance is not indicative of future results. Investing involves risk including the possible loss of principal.