US National Debt Clock: How Its Warning Affects You

The Debt Clock Tracks the US National Debt

National Debt Clock in 2008, when it was expanded to 14-digits.
••• Photo: Getty Images

The national debt clock tracks the U.S. debt. It first surpassed $28 trillion in March 2021. The clock sits at Anita's Way, between One Bryant Park (West 43rd Street) and 151 West 42nd Street on Sixth Avenue in New York City.

You don't need to travel to see the debt clock—you can visit the U.S. Treasury website, Debt to the Penny, to download the current and archived amount of U.S. national debt.

Why the Debt Clock Is Important

The U.S. national debt is the sum of all outstanding debt owed by the federal government. It's an accumulation of each year's budget deficits. About three-fourths of the national debt is public debt, which is held by individuals, businesses, and foreign governments that bought Treasury bills, notes, and bonds. The government owes the rest to itself, mainly to Social Security and other trust funds, and that's known as intragovernmental holdings.

The debt clock shows how much the U.S. government owes its citizens, other countries, and itself. Most federal revenue comes from individual taxes. The government counts on you to pay the debt back one day. Corporations pass their tax costs through to you by raising prices. In other words, you, your children, and your grandchildren must pay 100% of the debt through higher taxes. The higher tax burden that the level of U.S. debt causes dampens expectations. It's a big threat to the quality of life for future generations.

Much of the debt is financed by loans from foreign governments. It gives them a voice in what happens in the United States. When the debt approaches the debt ceiling, politicians must vote to raise that ceiling. Since 2011, when the debt ceiling crisis resulted in the passing of the Budget Control Act of 2011, the debt limit was suspended in 2013 (twice), 2014, 2015, and 2017 (twice). The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 resolved the debt limit situation until March 2019, when the limit was suspended and reset. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019 suspended the debt limit through July 31, 2021. At that time, the debt ceiling was reached and the national debt was at $28.4 trillion. That fall, the Treasury and Congress began working on a solution to the debt ceiling crisis once again.

When Was the Debt Clock Installed?

Real estate investor Seymour Durst created the debt clock in 1989. At that time, the national debt was almost $3 trillion and 50% of the gross domestic product (GDP). It was initially installed on 42nd Street and Sixth Avenue in New York City. Durst is famously quoted as saying, “If it bothers people, then it's working.”

Durst also bought front-page newspaper ads to further express his concern about the growing national debt. He conveyed a prophetic message in his 1991 message: "Federal debt soaring, national economy shrinking, soon the twain shall meet."

The debt clock faithfully recorded the increasing U.S. debt until 2000. That's when the prosperity of the 1990s created enough revenue to reduce the federal budget deficit and debt. It seemed as if the debt clock had accomplished its goal.

Unfortunately, that prosperity didn’t last. The 2001 recession and the 9/11 terrorist attacks meant lower revenues and higher government spending, which added to the debt. The national debt exceeded $6 trillion by July 2002—more than double what the national debt was when the clock was initially installed. The Durst Corporation reactivated the clock at that time. When the debt exceeded $10 trillion in September 2008, one more digit had to be added.

The national debt has grown by more than $18 trillion since the financial crisis in 2008. In 2020 alone, the national debt hit four new milestones. The table below highlights several national debt milestones from 2017 through 2021.

Debt Milestone Date or Year 
$20 trillion 2017
$21 trillion 2018
$22 trillion February 2019
$23 trillion October 2019
$24 trillion April 2020 
$25 trillion May 2020 
$26 trillion June 2020 
$27 trillion October 2020 
$28 trillion March 2021 

What Is the Debt Clock Warning Us About?

The debt clock's warning is even more critical. Two factors that allowed the U.S. debt to grow safely have been withdrawn. First, the Social Security Trust Fund took in more revenue through payroll taxes leveraged on baby boomers than it needed back in the 1980s. Ideally, this money should have been invested to be available when those workers retire, but the Fund was "loaned" to the government to finance increased deficit spending. This interest-free loan helped keep Treasury bond interest rates low, allowing more debt financing. Technically, it's not really a loan, though, since it can only be repaid by increased taxes when the boomers retire.

Second, many of the foreign holders of U.S. debt are investing more in their own economies. Over time, diminished demand for U.S. Treasuries could increase interest rates, thus slowing the economy. This lessening of demand puts pressure on the dollar. As U.S. dollars and dollar-denominated Treasury securities become less desirable, their value declines. As the dollar declines, foreign holders get paid back in currency that is worth less, which further decreases demand.