U.S. Congress' Powerful Impact on the Economy
Definition: The U.S. Congress is the Legislative Branch of the federal government. It has two bodies. The Senate has two elected officials from each state. The House of Representatives' membership is based on each state's population. These two houses provide a check and balance. The Senate makes sure each state has equal representation. The House of Representatives allows states with more people to have a bigger voice.
Since the First Congress, which met from 1789 to 1791, all Congresses have been numbered in order. The session usually lasts from January 3rd to July 31st, but in special cases, it can last longer.
Every other November, voters elect all 435 Representatives and a third of the Senators. The newly-elected Congressmen don't take office until January. The time between those two dates is known as the Lame Duck Session. The members who weren't re-elected have less political power. That's because they're leaving in a few weeks. As a result, often nothing gets done.
The 5 Congressional Support Services
Congress has five support services.The Government Printing Office (GPO) prepares all public documents. The Library of Congress catalogs them. The Architect of the Capitol maintains the building that houses Congress.
These include Social Security, the Department of Defense and even the Navy's Shipbuilding Plan. It played a critical role in resolving the 2008 financial crisis by analyzing TARP and ARRA. These programs may never have gotten off the ground without CBO's respected analysis. The CBO employs about 230 people, primarily economists and public policy analysts.
The General Accounting Office (GAO) advises Congress on wasteful government spending. That includes duplication and areas that could be more efficient. For example, the country may no longer need the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, thanks to shale oil production. The GAO also identifies outright high-risk agencies and programs. For example, the Department of Veterans Affairs expanded rapidly. That could create inefficiencies and duplication.
The Joint Economic Committee is a permanent committee with ten Senators and ten Representatives. It advises Congress on the economy. It holds hearings to educate members on economic issues. It reviews the Economic Report of the President.
What Are the Powers of Congress?
The U.S. Constitution grants Congress the unique power to create laws. Each house can write, debate, and pass bills. But it doesn't become law until both houses agree on the final wording, and it is signed by the President.
There are two types of bills. Public bills deal with general questions. They become Public Laws, or Acts, if approved by Congress and signed by the President. An example is the Affordable Care Act. Private bills deal with individual matters. These include claims against the Federal Government, immigration and naturalization cases, and land titles.
These bills become private laws if approved and signed.
Congress uses this power to create the Federal budget. The President kicks off each year's budget process by submitting a proposal to Congress. It reflects the President's priorities, estimates, and departmental requests. Congress then determines the discretionary spending for each department through appropriation bills. It can use the President's budget as a guide. Like any other bill, the House and the Senate create separate budgets, then reconcile them before submitting to the President for signature.
Congress also sets the debt ceiling. It limits how much outstanding debt the United States can owe. It's currently suspended until March 15, 2017.
It then votes yes or no on these agreements. These include NAFTA, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and the Transatlantic Trade Investment Partnership. It also votes on regional and bilateral agreements.
Congress alone has the power to declare war. The President can start a war only in response to an attack. It also provides and maintains the armed forces.
Congress coins the U.S. dollar and other currency. The U.S. Treasury then prints it. But the power of Congress to affect the money supply is minimal. That's because credit has a greater role in today's economy than dollars. The Federal Reserve controls the amount of credit, and therefore the money supply. For more, see Is the Federal Reserve Printing Money?
Congress supervises both the executive and judicial branches. The House can impeach a President. The Senate approves presidential appointments, treaties, and votes on House-sponsored impeachments. It establishes the federal courts and their jurisdictions.
Congress regulates interstate commerce. It establishes immigration rules. It also holds hearings on critical national issues.
How Congress Affects the Economy
Congress' power to create laws and set the budget means it has the power to set fiscal policy. When spending increases or taxes are cut, that's expansionary fiscal policy. It increases economic growth. Contractionary fiscal policy is the opposite. For example, in 2000, Congress passed the Bush tax cuts. They were due to expire in December 2012. Members disagreed on whether it should expire. That led to the fiscal cliff in 2012.
If Congress doesn't approve a budget, the government shuts down. That occurred in 2013 and 1995.
If it doesn't raise the debt ceiling, the United States must default on its debt payments. Congress delayed raising it in 2011, setting off a crisis. Standard &Poor's lowered its outlook on U.S. debt, sending the Dow down 200 points. For more, see U.S. Debt Crisis.
Individual Congressmen affect the economy. For example, former U.S. Representative Barney Frank was chair of the Housing Financial Services Committee. He investigated banking practices that led to the 2008 financial crisis. He co-sponsored the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform Act