The Pros and Cons of Filing a Tax Extension
When You Need More Time to Finish Your Tax Return
Filing an extension request using IRS Form 4868 asks the Internal Revenue Service to give you some additional time to file your tax return. The IRS will automatically grant you another six months—all you have to do is ask and you're pretty much guaranteed to get a nod.
An extension moves the filing deadline for personal tax returns from April 15 to Oct. 15. But is taking one a wise move? You might not have a choice under some circumstances, but there are both pros and cons.
While an extension gives you extra time to file your return, it does not give you extra time to pay your tax. Payments are still due by April 15, 2019 for tax year 2018. But an extension can help reduce your penalties if you can't afford to pay in full by the deadline.
The Pros of Filing an Extension
You'll Have 6 Extra Months to Finish Up
Having extra time to finish your return is often necessary if you're still waiting for tax documents to arrive in the mail or if you need additional time to organize your deductions. Extensions also provide extra time to file your gift tax return if you've been particularly generous during the year.
It Helps Reduce Late Penalties
The IRS basically imposes two types of penalties: a late filing penalty of 5 percent per month on any tax due as of 2018, plus a late payment penalty of a half percent a month.
If you file an extension and then file your return by the extended deadline of Oct. 15, you'll avoid the 5 percent per month late filing penalty. And the late filing penalty will begin from Oct. 15, which creates a deferral on this penalty if you file after Oct. 15.
It Preserves Your Tax Refunds
Some people end up filing several years late, and there's a three-year deadline for receiving a refund check from the IRS if it turns out that you're due one. This three-year statute of limitations begins on the original filing deadline—April 15, 2019 for tax year 2018.
But the refund statute of limitations is also extended by six months when you file an extension. This can preserve the ability of taxpayers to receive their federal tax refunds even if they're behind with submitting their tax returns.
It Gives the Self-Employed More Time to Fund Retirement Plans
Solo 401(k) and SIMPLE plans must be set up during the tax year, but actually funding the plan can occur as late as the extended deadline for the previous tax year. Entrepreneurs can open and fund a SEP-IRA for the previous year by the extended deadline as long as they've filed an extension.
You Have Additional Time to Recharacterize an IRA Contribution
You can change the nature of your IRA by the October extended deadline as long as your IRA is funded by the April deadline.
You can essentially turn your traditional IRA contribution into a Roth IRA, or a Roth IRA contribution into a traditional IRA contribution. This can be helpful if you're not sure if you're eligible for one type of IRA. You can even use this provision to recharacterize a Roth conversion back to a traditional IRA, although not within the same tax year or within 30 days.
You Have Extra Time to Make Various Elections on Your Tax Return
A wide variety of decisions must be made when you're preparing your tax return, and it can take some work and maybe a consultation with a professional to determine whether you're actually qualified to take certain deductions and credits. Filing an extension gives you extra time to mull it over or to seek help.
Filing an Extension Can Improve the Accuracy of Your Return
There's an inevitable rush to get tax returns finished by the April deadline, and taxpayers and accountants alike can make mistakes when they're rushing. An extension gives you and your accountant extra time to go over the return and make sure everything is complete and accurate before sending it in.
Extensions Can Help Reduce Your Tax Preparation Fees
Some accountants raise their fees in the weeks leading up to the April deadline only to drop them again during the slow spring and summer months. Price-sensitive taxpayers can potentially save money by shifting tax preparation to a time when their accountant is less busy and charging a lesser fee.
The Cons of Filing an Extension
Extra Time to File Doesn't Mean Extra Time to Pay
An extension will give you extra time to file your return, but any tax you owe is still due by the original deadline. An extension can help reduce penalties, but any outstanding balance will still be charged a late payment penalty of 0.5 percent per month and interest.
Some People Aren't Eligible for Extensions
Taxpayers who have been approved for offers in compromise must file by the April deadline during their five-year probationary period. The IRS can revoke your offer in compromise and reinstate the original amount you owed if you don't.
There's No Extra Time to Fund an IRA
Contributions to a traditional IRA and Roth IRAs are still due by the original April deadline.
No Extra Time for Married Couples to Switch From Joint to Separate Returns
No Extra Time to Make the Mark-To-Market Election for Professional Traders
According to Joe Kristan, CPA, "If you qualify as a 'trader,' April  is your deadline for choosing whether to make the 'mark-to-market election' on your trading positions."
You Might Confuse the IRS
The IRS might think that you need to file a tax return if you file an extension. If you end up not filing, perhaps because it turns out that you don't meet the filing requirements so it's just not necessary, the IRS might get confused and ask you to file a return anyway because you filed an extension to ask for additional time.
Filing an Extension is Pretty Easy
Extensions can be filed online. You'll receive a confirmation code from the IRS notifying you that your extension was received if you submit it electronically. Otherwise, you can just mail Form 4868 to the IRS.