Sovereign Wealth Funds

Where the World's Richest Countries Invest

sovereign wealth funds
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A sovereign wealth fund is an investment pool of foreign currency reserves owned by a government. The largest investment pools are owned by countries that have a trade surplus. These are the oil-exporting countries and China. They take in foreign currencies, primarily U.S. dollars, in exchange for their exports. The funds are then invested to produce the highest return possible.

Similar funds held by nations' central banks are not sovereign wealth funds because they have different goals. A central bank holds funds to manage the value of its currency, to stimulate the economy, or prevent inflation. A sovereign wealth fund just wants to earn a high return.

Here are some other funds that may be confused with sovereign wealth funds:

  • Funds held by state-owned companies.
  • Government employee pension funds.
  • Private wealth funds. 

How They Affect the U.S. Economy

The amount of money held by sovereign wealth funds has more than doubled since September 2007, from $3.265 trillion to $7.6 trillion in 2017. Their asset holdings are now double that of all hedge funds combined.

These funds are big enough to affect overall markets. For example, they took large stakes in Citigroup, Morgan Stanley, and Merrill Lynch during the financial crisis. They created an asset bubble in London and New York real estate. These funds influence more and more as investors become more sophisticated.

High oil prices spurred growth of large wealth funds between 2007 and 2014. During that time, nearly 60 percent of their assets were from oil and gas revenues. The 2008 financial crisis barely slowed their growth. These hit $4 trillion in December 2009 and $5 trillion in March 2012.  

Sovereign Wealth Fund Ranking

Norway's Government Pension Fund is the largest, according to the Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute. As of December 2017, it held $1.03 trillion.  Its profits are from the state-owned North Sea oil drilling operation. A drop in oil prices and in the Norwegian currency, the krone, cost the fund $17 billion in March 2015. 

Middle Eastern Funds. These funds rely heavily on oil exports. They make up about a third of the total wealth in sovereign funds.  Middle Eastern countries will have $9 trillion to invest by 2020, according to a McKinsey estimate

Top 10 Middle Eastern Funds (in billions) Country 2017
Abu Dhabi Investment Authority UAE $828.0
Kuwait Investment Authority Kuwait $524.0
SAMA Saudi Arabia $494.0
Qatar Investment Authority Qatar $320.0
Investment Corp. of Dubai UAE $209.5
Public Investment Corp. Saudi Arabia $223.9
Mubadala Development Co. UAE $125.0
Abu Dhabi Investment Council UAE $123.0
National Development Fund Iran $91.0
Investment Authority Libya $66.0

China Funds. Countries that export lots of goods also collect large holdings of foreign currency that needs to be invested. The best example of this is China, which has five wealth funds. Combined, these funds invest $2 trillion of the $3 trillion the country has accumulated. China's central bank manages the rest to regulate its currency. State-run corporations and banks invest these as well. Each fund has separate goals. 

  • China Investment Corp: $900 billion. It invests in local real estate, infrastructure, and state-owned businesses.
  • SAFE Investment Corp: $441 billion. It incorporates three investment entities based overseas. They include the Investment Company of the People’s Republic of China in Singapore, Gingko Tree in the UK, and Beryl Datura in the British Virgin Islands. It invests in infrastructure.
  • Hong Kong Monetary Authority: $456.6 billion. It invests in the Hang Seng stock market and supports the financial stability of Hong Kong.
  • China's National Social Security Fund: $295 billion. It manages funds recovered from state-owned businesses and other government investment proceeds. It invests mostly in China. It plans to invest 20 percent of its holdings in emerging markets and Europe.
  • China-Africa Development Fund: $5 billion. It invests in stocks and bonds in Africa. 

Singapore Funds. The city/state of Singapore has two wealth funds, holding $556 billion in total. The funds come from the high savings and investment rates of the people and businesses in this world-class financial center.

The largest is the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation, now the GIC Private Limited fund. It holds $359 billion. It's owned and funded by the government. It’s subdivided into three smaller enterprises:

  1. GIC Asset Management: It invests in equities, bonds, foreign exchange, and alternative investments.
  2. GIC Real Estate: This has more than 200 properties in 30 countries, as well as REITs.
  3. GIC Special Investments Private Limited: This is one of the world's largest private equity firms. It invests in leveraged buyouts, venture capital, and infrastructure. 

Singapore's other wealth fund is Temasek. It invests $197 billion through 35 subsidiaries. It focuses on investments in Asia and energy-related investments. It purchases stocks instead of direct investments. Temasek opened a New York-based office in 2013. Analysts expected that Temasek would change its strategy from owning small stakes in blue-chip publicly listed companies to major direct investments.