Pay off Student Loans or Save for Retirement?
Why you should save for retirement even when you have student loans
Student loan debt has a significant impact on both individuals and the overall economy. Around 65% of recent graduates from four-year colleges have student loans, and the average graduate in 2018 finished with $29,200 in loan debt.
Paying off student loan debt payments can become a major challenge while trying to manage other competing financial priorities. Focusing on long-term goals such as retirement may seem like a distant priority. However, it is important to save for retirement even when you are paying off student loans.
Pay off Loans vs. Save for Retirement
Paying off student debt is an important part of achieving financial stability. But retirement can last 30 years or more, depending on when you stop working and how long you live.
To cover both living and medical expenses (which will increase as you age) you will need to replace at least 80% of your income during retirement. Social Security likely will not cover your full living expenses; in January 2020, the average monthly Social Security payment was $1,177.
Starting to save for retirement early is as important as paying off student loans because of the impact of compound interest. For example, if you save $50 a month over 20 years, you will have to set aside a total of $600 a year, or $12,000 total. But with compound interest of 6%, that will be worth over $22,000—nearly double the amount that you contributed.
Before you begin making extra student loan payments, use a retirement calculator to see whether your savings are on track. Once you are saving for retirement on a regular basis, then you can look into making additional student loan payments.
Max out Your 401(k) Match
One of the best ways to increase your retirement savings while continuing to pay down your student loan debt is to use any retirement benefits offered by your employer.
Many companies offer some type of matching contribution to 401(k) and 403(b) retirement plans. For example, if your company offers a 5% match and you contribute 5% to your 401(k), your employer will add an additional 5% that doesn't come out of your salary.
Take advantage of these matching contributions by contributing up to the matching amount. Once you are vested in your retirement match, this money is yours to keep, even if you leave your job for another company.
Know Your Repayment Options
Prioritizing saving for retirement doesn't mean you have no options for paying off your student debt. You can still choose a repayment plan that makes saving and paying down your debt easier. Your repayment options primarily depend on whether your loans are federal or private.
Private loans are made without federal funds and come with fewer repayment options. You will need to contact your lender, loan holder, or loan servicer to find out your repayment options. Many private loans can be refinanced to lower your interest rate.
If you have federal loans and don't choose a repayment plan, you will be placed on the standard plan, which will have your loans paid off in 10 years. However, you can switch to a different plan at any time to suit your needs and goals.
For many graduates, the best option is an income-based repayment plan, which calculates your monthly payment based on how much money you are earning. On these plans, any debt that remains after 20 or 25 years is forgiven.
There are also a variety of other repayment plans, which can be based on your income, discretionary income, or how quickly you want the loan paid off. If you have multiple federal loans, these can be consolidated so that you only have to make a single payment each month.
If you have a direct loan, you can sign up for automatic payments through your loan servicer. When you enroll in this program, you will receive a 0.25% interest rate deduction.
Choosing the repayment plan that best fits your financial situation will help you consistently pay down the balance of your debt while also saving for retirement. Remember to revisit your repayment plan options whenever your employment or income changes to stay on track and make the best use of your money.
Other Financial Steps to Take While Paying off Student Loans
As you save for retirement and pay off your student loans, you can begin to make progress on other important financial goals.
- Pay off high-interest debt. Some types of debt are more problematic than others. Low-interest student loans or mortgage debt eat up less of your income and are generally tax-deductible. Debt with interest rates higher than 6%, such as credit card payments, are a bigger drain on your resources and can quickly snowball into a significant financial burden. If you have credit card debt, consider decreasing (but not stopping) your other savings and debt payments until it is paid off.
- Create an emergency fund. An emergency fund will support you in case of a significant financial setback, such as losing your job or becoming temporarily unable to work due to illness or injury. Your emergency fund should cover three to six months of living expenses. The best way to accomplish this goal is to automatically transfer money directly from your paycheck into a separate savings account until you’ve reached your savings goal. This money should be easily accessible in case of an emergency. Health Savings Account balances and Roth IRA assets may also be included as part of your emergency fund.
- Save for unexpected expenses. This fund is necessary to avoid more costly credit card debt or personal loans if any unexpected medical, auto, or home expenses occur. Aim for $1,000 to $2,000 in an account separate from your regular checking.
- Identify financial goals. Loan payments shouldn’t prevent you from pursuing important life goals. While your budget or personal spending plan may seem tight as you make these necessary payments, having a written plan can help to provide guidance when you are trying to prioritize how to spend your time and money. Do you want to start a family? Buy a house? Move to a new city? Putting a short- and long-term financial plan in writing and identifying the steps needed to make these goals happen can increase the likelihood you will eventually achieve them.
Creating a financial plan that is simple and flexible is the first step you can take to assume control over student loan debt. There are ways to fit your payments into your financial plan in a way that doesn’t neglect your need to save for retirement or pursue other important financial milestones.
The Institute for College Access and Success. "Student Debt and the Class of 2018," Page 4. Accessed Feb. 28, 2020.
Internal Revenue Service. "Retirement Topics - Benefits of Saving Now." Accessed Feb. 28, 2020.
The Institute for College Access and Success. "Student Debt and the Class of 2018," Page 20. Accessed Feb. 28, 2020.
Federal Student Aid. "Choose the Federal Student Loan Repayment Plan That’s Best for You." Accessed Feb. 28. 2020.
Federal Student Aid. "Direct Loan Entrance Counseling Guide." Page 19. Accessed Feb. 28, 2020.