01Dust Attacks a Town
A dust storm rolled into Elkhart, Kansas, on May 21, 1937. The year before, the drought caused the hottest summer on record. In June, eight states experienced temperatures at 110 or greater. In July, the heat wave hit 12 more states. They were Iowa, Kansas (121 degrees), Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, North Dakota (121 degrees), Oklahoma (120 degrees), Pennsylvania, South Dakota (120 degrees), West Virginia, and Wisconsin. In August, Texas saw 120-degree record-breaking temperatures.
It was also the deadliest heat wave in U.S. history, killing 1,693 people. Another 3,500 people drowned while trying to cool off.
02Causes of the Dust Bowl
The Dust Bowl was caused by the worst drought in North America in 300 years. In 1930, weather patterns shifted over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The Pacific grew cooler than normal and the Atlantic became warmer. The combination weakened and changed the direction of the jet stream.
There were four waves of droughts:1930-1931, 1934, 1936, and 1939-1940. The affected regions could not recover before the next one hit. By 1934, the drought covered 75 percent of the country, affecting 27 states. The worst-hit was the Oklahoma panhandle.
Once farmers settled the Midwest prairies, they plowed over 5.2 million acres of the tall, deep-rooted prairie grass. When the drought killed off the crops, high winds blew the topsoil away.
03Effects of the Dust Bowl
Dust storms helped cause The Great Depression. Dust storms nearly covered buildings, making them useless. People became very ill from inhaling the dust.
These storms forced family farmers to lose their business, their livelihood and their homes.By 1936, 21 percent of all rural families in the Great Plains received federal emergency relief. In some counties, it was as high as 90 percent.
Families migrated to California or cities to find work that often didn't exist by the time they got there. As farmers left in search of work, they became homeless. Almost 6,000 shanty towns, called Hoovervilles, sprang up in the 1930s.
04Farming in 1935
Team of two work horses hitched to a wagon, farm house visible in the background, low-angle view, Beltsville, Maryland, 1935. From the New York Public Library.
On April 15, 1934, the worst dust storm occurred. It was later named Black Sunday. Several weeks later, President Franklin D. Roosevelt passed the Soil Conservation Act. It taught farmers how to plant in a more sustainable way.
05Farmers Who Survived the Dust Bowl
A farmer cultivating corn with fertilizer on a horse drawn plow at the Wabash Farms, Loogootee, Indiana, June 1938. That year, the economy contracted 3.3 percent because FDR cut back on the New Deal. He was trying to balance the budget, but it was too soon. Prices dropped 2.8 percent, hurting the farmers who were left.
06World's Greatest Standard of Living?
March 1937: A billboard, sponsored by the National Association of Manufacturers, on Highway 99 in California during the Depression. It reads 'There's no way like the American way' and 'world's highest standard of living'. That year, the unemployment rate was 14.3 percent.
07Men Were Desperate to Find Work
Two unemployed men walking towards Los Angeles, California to find work.
08On the Road to Find Work
Part of an impoverished family of nine on a New Mexico highway. Depression refugees left Iowa in 1932 due to father's tuberculosis. He was an auto mechanic laborer and painter. The family had been on relief in Arizona.
Unemployment was 23.6 percent. The economy contracted 12.9 percent. People blamed President Herbert Hoover, who raised taxes that year to balance the budget. They voted for FDR, who promised a New Deal.
09Come to California
Roadside camp near Bakersfield, California. The worldly possessions of refugees from Texas dust, drought and depression. Many left their homes to find work in California. By the time they got there, the jobs were gone. This occurred in November 1935. Unemployment was 20.1 percent.
10This Family Did Not Feel the Effects of an Improving Economy
A family of migrant workers fleeing from the drought in Oklahoma camp by the roadside in Blythe, California.
This photo was taken August 1, 1936. That month, Texas experienced 120 degrees record-breaking temperatures.
By the end of the year, the heat wave had killed 1,693 people. Another 3,500 people drowned while trying to cool off.
The economy grew 12.9 percent that year. That was an incredible accomplishment, but too late to save this family's farm. Unemployment shrank to 16.9 percent. Prices rose 1.4 percent. The debt grew to $34 billion. To pay down the debt, President Roosevelt raised the top tax rate to 79 percent. But that proved to be a mistake. The economy wasn't strong enough to sustain higher taxes, and the Depression resumed.
11Eating Along the Side of the Road
Son of depression refugee from Oklahoma now in California. November 1936
12A Shanty Built of Refuse
A shanty built of refuse near the Sunnyside slack pile, Herrin, Illinois Many residences in southern Illinois coal towns were built with money borrowed from building and loan associations, which almost all went bankrupt.
13Migrant Workers in California
A migrant worker, his young wife and four children resting outside their temporary lodgings, situated on a migrant camp, Marysville, California, 1935.
14Living Out of a Car
The only home of a depression-routed family of nine from Iowa. August 1936
Thousands of these farmers and other unemployed workers traveled to California to find work. Many ended up living as homeless “hobos” or in shantytowns called “Hoovervilles," named after then-President Herbert Hoover. Many people felt he caused the Depression by basically doing nothing to stop it. He was more concerned about balancing the budget, and felt the market would sort itself out.
The Great Depression displaced entire families, who became homeless. The children were most severely impacted. They often had to work to help make ends meet.
There were no social programs in the early part of the Depression. People lined up just to get a bowl of soup from a charity.
Soup line during the Great Depression. Men this side of the sign are assured of a five-cent meal. The rest must wait for generous passersby. Buddy, can you spare a dime? Photo taken between 1930 and 1940. There was no Social Security, welfare, or unemployment compensation until FDR and the New Deal.
19Soup Kitchens Were Life Savers
Soup kitchens didn't offer much to eat, but it was better than nothing.
20Even Gangsters Opened Soup Kitchens
A group of men line up outside a Chicago soup kitchen opened by Al Capone, ca.1930s. In a bid to rebuild his reputation, Capone opened a soup kitchen amid the worsening economic conditions.
21Soup Kitchens in 1930
Dolly Gann (L), sister of U.S. vice president Charles Curtis, helps serve meals to the hungry at a Salvation Army soup kitchen on December 27, 1930.
22Effects of the Great Depression
This gentleman tried to remain well dressed, but was forced to seek help from the Self Help Association. It was a dairy farm unit in California in 1936. Unemployment was 16.9 percent.
"He worked construction, but when the jobs disappeared he moved the family from Florida to his father's farm in North Georgia. On the farm, they grew a field of corn, many vegetables, apples and other fruit, and they had some livestock." A true story from a reader.
23The Faces of the Great Depression
This famous photo by Walker Evans is of Floyd Burroughs. He was from Hale County, Alabama. The picture was taken in 1936.
"Fortune" magazine commissioned Walker Evans and staff writer James Agee to produce a feature on the plight of tenant farmers. They interviewed and photographed three families of cotton growers.
The magazine never published the article, but the two published "Now Let Us Praise Famous Men" in 1941.
24The Faces of the Great Depression
Lucille Burroughs was Floyd's 10-year old daughter. In "And Their Children After Them: The Legacy of 'Let Us Now Praise Famous Men,'" Dale Maharidge followed up on Lucille and others.
Lucille married when she was 15, and then divorced. She married again and had four children, but her husband died young.
Lucille had dreamed of becoming a teacher or a nurse. Instead, she picked cotton and waited tables. Sadly, she committed suicide in 1971. She was 45.
25The Faces of the Great Depression - Migrant Mother
This woman is Florence Thompson, age 32, and the mother of five children. She was a peapicker in California. When this picture was taken by Dorothea Lange, Florence had just sold her family's home for money to buy food. The home was a tent.
In an interview available on YouTube, Florence revealed that her husband Cleo died in 1931. She picked 450 pounds of cotton a day. She moved to Modesto in 1945 and got a job in a hospital.
26Children of Great Depression
Children of agricultural day laborers camped by the roadside near Spiro, Oklahoma. There were no beds and no protection from the profusion of flies. Russell Lee, June 1939
"For breakfast they would have cornmeal mush. For dinner, vegetables. For supper, cornbread. And they had milk at every meal. They worked hard and ate light, but they survived." A true story from a reader.
27Forced to Sell Apples
People with jobs would help out those without jobs by buying apples, pencils, or matches.
28There Were No Jobs
Unemployed men sit outside waiting dinner at Robinson's soup kitchen located at 9th and Plum streets, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1931. That year, the economy contracted 6.2 percent, and prices dropped 9.3 percent. Unemployment was 15.9 percent, but the worst was yet to come.
29Stock Market Crash of 1929
The floor of the New York Stock Exchange right after the stock market crash of 1929. It was a scene of total panic as stockbrokers lost all.
30Stock Market Crash Destroyed Confidence in Wall Street
After the 'Black Thursday' at the stock-market of New York the mounted police put the excited assemblage in motion, New York, USA, Photograph, 2nd November 1929.
31Ticker Tapes Couldn't Keep Up With the Sales Volume
Brokers check the tape for daily prices in a scene from the film, 'The Wolf Of Wall Street,' which opened just months before the crash in 1929, Hollywood, California, 1929.
32When the Great Depression Started
President Herbert Hoover and his wife, Lou Henry Hoover, in Chicago at the final game of the 1929 World Series between the Chicago Cubs and the Philadelphia Athletics, October 1929. The Great Depression had already begun in August of that year.
33If Hoover Had Stayed in Office, the Depression Would Have Been Much Worse
President Herbert Hoover (left) with his successor Franklin D. Roosevelt at his inauguration. Capitol / Washington. 4th March 1933. Photograph.
34The New Deal Programs Employed Many
Part of a fashion parade at the largest WPA sewing shop in NY where 3,000 women produce clothing and linens to be distributed among the unemployed, New York, New York, circa 1935. They work a six day, thirty hour week on two floors of the old Siegel Cooper Building.
During the Great Depression, people lost their homes and lived in tents. Could that happen in the U.S. again? Probably not. Congress has demonstrated it would spend whatever is necessary, regardless of the damage to the debt.
Great Depression Pictures
These 35 Photos Show the Economic Impact of the Great Depression
The Farm Security Administration hired photographers to document the living conditions of the Great Depression . They are a landmark in the history of documentary photography. The photos show the adverse effects of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl. Some of the most famous images portray people who were displaced from farms and migrated west or to industrial cities in search of work. These photos show better than charts and numbers the economic impact of the Great Depression.