The Essential Components of a Cover Letter

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When writing a cover letter to apply for a job, it's important to include all the requisite information clearly and efficiently. If any elements are missing, it may very well disqualify you from consideration.

A cover letter is comprised of several parts: your contact information, a salutation, the body of the cover letter, an appropriate closing, and a signature.

What to Include in Each Part of a Cover Letter

Contact Information

What to include: The first section or header includes your contact information: name, address, phone or cell phone number, and your email address.

It has also become common to include your LinkedIn address so that employers can immediately access your professional profile, resume, and networking contacts.  In an email, you can also list your contact info below your signature.

Choose a style: Go with a simple block, centered header, or get a little fancy with the design if you're sending a hard copy. 

Keep it professional: Also, keep in mind that your email address should sound simple and professional; ideally, it would look like “Firstname_Lastname@gmail.com.” Never use a “cutesy” email address that refers to your hobbies or political opinions or is off-color – your email address needs to reflect your professional identity, not your sense of humor. You may want to create an email account dedicated solely to your career search.

Employer contact information: You can also include your employer's contact information; this is most appropriate to include on a formal, hard copy cover letter submitted through snail mail or by hand.

If you are sending a job application by email or through an employer’s online application system, it is not as necessary to include this contact information. As a general rule of thumb for email applications, use the formal contact address if you know it, but don’t worry too much about omitting it otherwise.

Cover Letter Salutation

Although you may not need to know the landed address of an employer when sending a cover letter via email, getting a name to address your letter to is important. Do your research to avoid having to use the generic "To Whom It May Concern" or "Dear Sir or Madam," which can make things look like you didn't make an effort to learn more about the job or the employer.

The best ways to learn contact names are to call an organization’s front office or to review their website. To get in gear, review samples of cover letter salutations. If you can't find a contact person, there are options you can use instead.

Cover Letter Body

The body of your cover letter lets the employer know what position you are applying for, why the employer should select you for an interview, and how you will follow up. This section of your cover letter includes:

  • First paragraph - Why you are writing. This is "the grab," your chance to grasp your reader by the collar and get his attention. Offer some specific, focused information regarding the job you're seeking and a few core strengths that demonstrate your suitability for the position.
  • Second paragraph - What you have to offer the employer. This is your hook where you highlight examples of the work performed and achieved results. Draw on your key competencies from your resume, although don't copy it word for word. Bullet points in this paragraph are extremely effective in drawing your reader's eye to your successes. You can also boldface quantifiable achievements like YOY sales figures in order to make these “pop” on the page.
  • Third paragraph - Your knowledge of the company. Show that you did you your research and know something about the business and how you can contribute to its mission.
  • Fourth paragraph - Your closing. Summarize what you would bring to the position and suggest next steps by requesting a meeting or suggesting a call.

More: What to Include in the Body of a Cover Letter

Closing

Finish your letter with a formal closing like "Sincerely" or "Yours truly." A cover letter is professional correspondence, so don't use informal closings like "Cheers" in the letters you write to apply for jobs.

More: Cover Letter Closing Examples

Your Signature 

How you sign your cover letter will depend if you're sending a paper or email letter. If you're sending a paper letter, type your name after the salutation, leaving a space for your handwritten signature.

If you're sending an email cover letter, type your name and contact information after your salutation.

Signed Letter:

Sincerely,

Mary Barnes (Your Signature)

Mary Barnes

Email Letter:

Sincerely,

Mary Barnes
Address
City, State Zip
Email
Phone

More: How to Set Up Your Email Signature

Cover Letter Template
This template outlines the information you need to include in the cover letter. Use the cover letter template as a guideline to create customized cover letters.

How to Write a Cover Letter
How to write a cover letter, including what to include in your cover letter, cover letter format, targeted cover letters, and cover letter samples and examples.

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