Navy Officer Promotions: How You Can Rise In Naval Rank

Naval Officer Advancement Tips

Chilean Naval Officers
© Pablo Corral V/Corbis/VCG / Getty Images

An officer in the U.S. Navy is not guaranteed a promotion. However, your first 4-5 years advancement to the O-2 and O-3 ranks are given on average to above average performance.  Competent performance as a young junior officer is still required, but a junior officer has to really find a way to destroy his/her chances of advancement in order to not advance to the ranks of Lieutenant (O-3).  Criminal actions such as Driving While Intoxicated (DWI), fraternization, sexual harassment, or well document poor leadership are some of the typical reasons why young junior officers will not make O-3.

 

The Navy promotes officers based on vacancies in the advanced officer ranks, so there are no automatic promotions. As you climb the ladder of experience and time in service, the advancement of the Naval Officer pyramids quickly depending upon the qualifications and job.  Some officer communities are larger than others and offer a wider range of advanced positions past the 20 year mark (O-6 and above).  Some communities like SEAL, Diver, and Navy EOD are smaller communities with very limited billets in the O-7 and above ranks.

However, there are some things you can do — some obvious, some not — to improve your chances of getting promoted when you're serving as a U.S. Naval officer.

How Navy Officer Promotions Work

Navy officer promotions are complicated. To receive a promotion as a U.S. Navy officer, you obviously need to show excellent job performance in your current assignment. According to the Navy:

"The key to success on the job and when being considered by promotion boards is sustained superior performance in a variety of challenging assignments — the same criteria that got the LDO [Limited Duty Officer] or CWO [Chief Warrant Officer] selected in the first place.  The officer who continually strives for, and achieves, outstanding performance in all assignments can expect to have a satisfying and rewarding career."

You also need to spend a certain amount of time in your current rank before you're eligible to be promoted to the next highest rank.

Categories of Naval Officers

There are three categories of U.S. Navy officers, and you'll be competing for promotions only within your category. These include:

  • Limited Duty Officer Line. This includes Surface, Submarine, Aviation, Information Dominance Corp, SEAL, General and Explosive Ordnance Disposal Series LDOs.
  • Limited Duty Officer Staff. This includes Supply and Civil Engineer Corps LDOs.
  • Chief Warrant Officer. All CWOs compete for the same Navy promotion opportunities.

According to the Navy, this practice means that officers who are in very diverse fields — air traffic control and nuclear power, for example — are competing for the same promotions. The selection board is tasked with choosing the "best and most fully qualified" from all promotion candidates. The board does consider both the skills of the applicant and the service's particular needs, according to the Navy.

Improving Your Promotion Chances

The vast majority of Navy officers earn at least one or two promotions. However, once you are promoted to a higher rank, getting promoted further becomes more difficult.

Getting approved to become a commanding officer of a ship, submarine, air wing, SEAL Team, or other unit is a near guaranteed way to make O-5 and perhaps O-6.  However, running a ship aground or having a scandal within your unit can be cause for dismissal and you will likely never be advanced again.  

Getting accepted for major command is also another way to ensure O-6 and perhaps O-7 advancement should the officer have a stellar record of performance at that level.

U.S. law governs how many officers in the grades Chief Warrant Officer 5, Lieutenant Commander, Commander and Captain that the Navy can have at any given time. Therefore, promotions to these grades are directly related to vacancies, and not to qualifications.  However, these vacancies are typically few each year and the selection process requires a board of senior officers to select the most qualified applicant to be advanced to the next rank and perform at that command level.

The Navy advises discussing your career and your hopes for promotion with your commanding officer and with other officers, including senior LDOs and CWOs. That can help you get an idea of what you need to do to earn promotion.