Floods' Effect on the Economy and You

Why Floods Are a More Dangerous Threat Than Terrorism

Flooded farm
•••

 Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images

Floods are the most common natural disaster in the United States. Their damage is so extensive that they are responsible for 90% of all U.S. natural disasters declared by the president.

According to the National Weather Service, floods kill 95 people a year on average. That makes floods the second-most deadly form of extreme weather after heat waves. Flooding killed 91 Americans in 2019.

2019 Floods

Record snow and rain flooded several Midwest states in March 2019. Three people died and thousands had to evacuate. Damage estimates were $1 billion. At least 13 counties were declared a major disaster area.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration warned that 25 states along the Mississippi faced flooding through May 2019. The heaviest flooding occurred along the Mississippi basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri. Some areas had snow and rain levels two times greater than average.

These states' levee systems could not withstand crest levels as high as 25 feet. In 2017, the American Society of Civil Engineers gave the U.S. levee system a D grade. It would cost $80 billion to bring the system up to standards. Bridges remained washed out, causing transportation nightmares for thousands.

The Nebraska Department of Agriculture said flooding could cost the state’s livestock sector $400 million. The floods and record-low temperatures hit during calving season. Farmers are behind in planting corn crops and may have to switch to less-profitable soybeans. As of mid-June 2019, 98% of corn had been planted, compared to 100% being planted between 2014 and 2018. Farmers may seek insurance coverage for between 5 million and 15 million acres, surpassing a record 3.6 million acres in 2013.

2018 Floods

In 2018, floods killed 80 people, slightly fewer than the 116 people in 2017. In July 2018, the National Weather Service announced "dangerous, life-threatening floods" from Pennsylvania to North Carolina, affecting 10 million people. For example, October 2019 was the wettest October for Baltimore, Md. since 2013. Area storms delayed flights in New York, NY, and Philadelphia, Penn.

Causes

Global warming is causing more floods. As temperatures rise, the air holds more moisture. Rainfall becomes less frequent, creating droughts. At some point, the skies release their moisture in a torrential downpour. That creates floods. Instead of soaking into the ground, the water runs on hard-packed earth that has dried out during the drought.

Climate change may also cause floods by shifting the pattern of the jet stream. The Arctic is warming faster than the temperate zones. That can change the air pressure and turn the jet stream. When it plunges south, it can pick up tropical moisture from the Gulf of Mexico and dumps it on the East Coast.

Higher temperatures also mean less snow and more rain. One-sixth of the world's population relies on snowmelt for their water supply. They expect slowly-melting snow to supply water at a steady pace. Instead, they will receive buckets they aren't prepared to store. 

Along the shoreline, rising sea levels are making floods worse. In Miami, Florida, the ocean floods the streets during high tide. To cope, the City of Miami Beach launched a five-year, $600 million public works program. Harvard researchers found that home prices in lower-lying areas are rising more slowly than the rest of Florida. A study using Zillow found that properties at risk of rising sea levels sell at a 7% discount to comparable properties. They include Key Biscayne, Sunny Islands, and Golden Beach as well as Miami Beach. By 2030, Miami Beach homes could pay $17 million in higher property taxes due to flooding. At the same time, nearby properties that are at higher elevations are experiencing rising prices.

Extreme weather will increase flooding. Over the next 25 years, river floods will threaten tens of millions of residents. A 2018 study found that over half the United States will need to double existing flood protections.

Record Mississippi River Floods

The 2011 Mississippi River flood was historic. The river experienced historical crests, dams and levees were breached. Heavy snowmelts, historic rainfalls, and April's tornadoes triggered flooding from the Ohio River, as well. Fear of flooding oil refineries spiked gas prices. That fear subsided with the opening of the spillways, and gas prices dropped.

The Army Corps of Engineers estimated it cost $2 billion to repair the damage caused by the flood. The Mississippi River runs past farmlands and cities in six states. Damage from the flood made these communities more vulnerable to future floods. The Corps received $802 million from Congress to identify and repair the weakest areas.

The 1993 Mississippi flood was the costliest U.S. flood of the 20th century. It caused $15 billion in damages. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reported that more than 20 million acres in nine states were flooded. Approximately 54,000 people were evacuated, while 50,000 homes were destroyed or damaged. The flood swamped 75 towns, some of which were never rebuilt.

The 1927 Mississippi River flood was the most destructive in U.S. history. More than 700,000 people were left homeless, while 250 died from floods that covered 1 million acres with 30 feet of water in 10 days. Almost 300,000 African Americans were forced to live in refugee camps for months. This triggered a mass migration of African Americans to northern cities. As a result of the flood, the U.S. government created a comprehensive levee system to manage the Mississippi.

Southeastern United States

AT&T has created a model to pinpoint where it expects extreme flooding to occur in the Southeast. The area is vulnerable to coastal flooding from sea level rise, hurricane storm surges, and inland flooding. The most vulnerable states are North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida.

The telecom will use the map to adapt, such as elevating cell sites. It has spent $650 million in its Network Disaster Recovery program. Between 2014 and 2018, AT&T donated $3.7 million in humanitarian aid to support communities impacted by climate-related events.

Economic Impact

Between 1980 and 2013, the United States suffered more than $260 billion in flood-related damages. Climate change will increase flooding risks, according to the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

There are 2,500 chemical sites located in America's flood zones. Of those, 1,400 are in areas at high risk for flooding. These don't count Superfund sites.

Floods are very damaging to homes. For example, just one inch of water can cause $25,000 of damage to your home, according to Floodsmart. Homeowners' insurance doesn't cover floods. Homeowners' insurance doesn't cover floods. Homeowners in high-risk flood areas are required to purchase flood insurance. The U.S. Congress established the National Flood Insurance Program in 1968. The last time it was broadened was 2004. By 2018, it had accumulated $20.5 billion in debt. The added cost increased the national deficit and debt. As a result, much of the cost of flooding is passed on to taxpayers.

Many homes in recent floods did not have flood insurance because they were outside the 100-year floodplain. For example, 75% of the 204,000 homes damaged in Hurricane Harvey was outside the floodplain. The 100-year floodplain identifies land that would be underwater in a 100-year storm. Those storms should only have a 1% chance of occurring in any given year.

Floods also cause food prices to spike, depending on how fast the flood waters recede. Soybeans, corn, rice, and cotton are planted in the Mississippi River area in the spring when flooding occurs. Flood waters also strip the ground of needed nutrients. That increases costs to farmers but provides a benefit to fertilizer companies.

Solutions

The federal government offers grants to help homeowners elevate their houses. It recommends they move their house to higher ground or put their house on flood-resistant higher foundations. Homeowners must also install flood opening.

In 2015, President Barack Obama signed an executive order requiring planners of federally funded buildings, roads, and other infrastructure to account for the impact of possible flooding from rising sea levels or more extreme precipitation. President Trump rescinded those rules last year.

Perhaps people can learn from fire ants, who survive floods unscathed. Scientists are studying their ability to form waterproof rafts.

Mitigation strategies that help people cope with floods will only go so far. By 2100, more than half of the communities along the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast will be “chronically inundated.” They will see 10% of their area flooded at least twice a month according to the Union of Concerned Scientists. To prevent that, global warming must be reversed.

First, humanity must stop adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. That means:

  1. Eliminating coal as a fuel for electric generation by 2050. 
  2. Using solar and wind power for electricity generation.
  3. Capturing the carbon dioxide emitted by biofuel plants and storing it underground.

To reverse rising temperatures, humanity must also remove 30 years’ worth of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by 2100. That would require geoengineering on a grand scale. Carbon sequestration captures and stores existing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The best way to do that is to plant massive quantities of trees. The world is emitting about 40 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere every year with the Amazon rainforest absorbing two billion tons of it. But it only partially offsets the 40 billion tons that people emit.

Article Sources

  1. Department of Homeland Security, Ready. "Disasters and Emergencies." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  2. State of New Jersey. "Floods and Flash Flooding - Get the Facts." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  3. National Weather Service. "Flood Safety Awareness Week Is March 18-22, 2013." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  4. National Weather Service. "NWS Preliminary U.S. Flood Fatality Statistics." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  5. National Weather Service. "2019 National Hydrologic Assessment." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  6. NOAA. "Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters: Overview." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  7. Missouri Governor’s Office. “President Trump Approves Governor Parson’s Request for Major Disaster Declaration for Missouri." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  8. NOAA. "Spring Outlook: Historic, Widespread Flooding to Continue Through May." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  9. Infrastructure Report Card. "2017 Infrastructure Report Card Levees D." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  10. Nebraska Farm Bureau. "Nebraska Farm Bureau Disaster Relief Fund Helping Farmers, Ranchers and Rural Communities." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  11. USDA. "Crop Progress, 6/17/2019," Page 1. Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  12. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. "Farmers Face Difficult Decisions as Spring Planting Lumbers On." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  13. Wall Street Journal. "Farmers on Drenched Land Confront Tough Choice on Planting." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  14. Weather.gov. "All Hazardous Stats Data." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  15. The Weather Channel. "More Flash Flooding Likely in the East Through Midweek as Tropical Moisture Fuels Heavy Rainfall." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  16. National Weather Service, "Climatological Report (Monthly)." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  17. NASA. "The Effects of Climate Change." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  18. NASA Earth Observatory. "El Niño Pacific Wind and Current Changes Bring Warm, Wild Weather." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  19. NASA. "NASA: Snow Science in Support of Our Nation's Water Supply." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  20. NOAA. "What Is High Tide Flooding?" Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  21. City of Miami Beach. "Miami Beach Florida Stormwater Management and Climate Adaptation Review," Page 9. Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  22. IOPscience. "Climate Gentrification: From Theory to Empiricism in Miami-Dade County, Florida," Page 1. Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  23. University of Colorado. "Disaster on the Horizon: The Price Effect of Sea Level Rise," Page 2. Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  24. Miami-Dade County Government. "Miami-Dade County Beach Erosion Control Master Plan." Page 5. Accessed Jan. 2, 2020.

  25. Miami-Dade County Government. "Miami-Dade County Beach Erosion Control Master Plan." Page 13. Accessed Jan. 2, 2020.

  26. Miami Herald."Florida Has More to Lose With Sea Rise Than Anywhere Else in the U.S., New Study Says." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  27. Scientific American. "River Floods Will Threaten Tens of Millions in Next 25 Years." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  28. NOAA. "National Climate Report - May 2011 Flooding." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  29. US Army Corps of Engineers. "Corps Continues to Fight Mississippi River Flooding, Crest Moving South From Cairo." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  30. US Army Corps of Engineers. "Mississippi Valley Division Prepares for 2012 Flood Season, Continues Operation Watershed Recovery Work." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  31. NOAA. "The Great USA Flood of 1993." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  32. USGS. "The Great Flood of 1993." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  33. Weather.gov. "Flood History of Mississippi," Page 1. Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  34. Smithsonian National Museum of African American History & Culture. "The Great Mississippi River Flood of 1927." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  35. Britannica. "Mississippi River Flood of 1927." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  36. AT&T: "Road to Climate Resiliency: The AT&T Story," Page 7. Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  37. AT&T. "AT&T Engages U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory on Industry-leading Climate Resiliency Project." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  38. FEMA. "National Flood Insurance Program & the Endangered Species Act." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  39. Global Citizen. "Thousands of US Chemical Plants Vulnerable to Flooding and Spills." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  40. AGU100. "Extreme Weather, Chemical Facilities, and Vulnerable Communities in the U.S. Gulf Coast: A Disastrous Combination." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  41. Floodsmart. "The Cost of Flooding." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  42. FEMA. "How Do I Buy Flood Insurance?" Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  43. FEMA. "National Flood Insurance Program Answers to Questions About the NFIP," Page 15. Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  44. U.S. Government Accountability Office. "National Flood Insurance Program." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  45. National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster. "Hurricane Harvey Facts and Figures." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  46. U.S. Department of Interior. "Floods and Recurrence Intervals." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  47. Mississippi State University. "Current Agricultural Practices of the Mississippi Delta," Page 3. Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  48. Iowa State University. "Conservation Buffers and Water Quality." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  49. FEMA. "Elevating Your Home? What You Need to Know and Do." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  50. Obama White House. "Executive Order – Establishing a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard and a Process for Further Soliciting and Considering Stakeholder Input." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  51. The White House. "Presidential Executive Order on Establishing Discipline and Accountability in the Environmental Review and Permitting Process for Infrastructure." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  52. Georgia Tech. "How Fire Ants Build Waterproof Rafts." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  53. Union of Concerned Scientists. "Underwater, Rising Seas, Chronic Floods, and the Implications for U.S. Coastal Real Estate." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  54. Climate Analytics. "Coal Phase-Out." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  55. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. "2014 Energy and Climate Outlook," Page 4. Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  56. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. "2014 Energy and Climate Outlook," Page 14. Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  57. AP. "AP Explains: Role of the Amazon in Global Climate Change." Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.

  58. Climate.gov. "Which Emits More Carbon Dioxide: Volcanoes or Human Activities?" Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.