Getting that first job after college or high school is a very exciting, yet stressful event. You’re probably overwhelmed with many new challenges, opportunities, and commitments. And you likely have a lot of questions. One of the biggest new challenges may be the management of money and personal finance.
Understanding Your Paycheck
With your first paid job, an actual paycheck, and the transition into post-graduate life, you might find you have new responsibilities and financial considerations.
It might feel like your paycheck disappears as soon as it shows up in your bank account, making this is a great time to learn how to manage your money wisely both for now and for your future.
Review your pay stub for the following:
- Wages for the period that accurately reflect your annual compensation
- Your federal income tax withholding allowances, because if you're single and you over-withhold, you're essentially giving the IRS a free loan of your money until you file a tax return to get it back.
Check the number of allowances to claim on your W-4 using the IRS withholding calculator. Ideally, you should have just enough money withheld from your pay to cover your taxes so you neither owe nor get a refund.
Review any additional deductions you've chosen to have taken out, such as contributions to a 401(k) plan or health plan, for example.
Create a Budget
If you’ve been in school before this new job, your finances were probably relatively simple. You likely had some basic bills and utilities to pay, and your education may have been funded by outside sources or student loans. But now that you are beginning your life in the workforce and all that comes with it, your cash flow needs may change significantly.
Once you have an idea of how much your paychecks will be after income and payroll taxes, determine your expenses by surveying your situation. Take note of how much rent you pay each month, whether you plan to move to a nicer place soon, and possibly saving funds to buy a car.
Also, note how long before you have to begin paying back the student loans, and figure out how much you can pay on your loans each month. These items will play an important role in determining where your money has to go.
Creating a budget can be done in a few easy steps. It is important that you establish this spending plan as soon as possible so that you don’t find yourself in financial trouble later. You can use a budget template to speed things up and tailor it to include any additional categories you want to have in your budget.
Using a budgeting app is one way to make the process easier. Budgeting apps can directly link to your checking account or credit card accounts and automatically download transaction information. Then, through the app, you can track your spending, categorize budget expenses, set savings goals, and see at a glance how much money you have available.
Tackle Your Debt
With your new source of income, it is a perfect time to get serious about repaying your debt. If you have credit cards, you may have become used to only paying the minimum payment each month, but it's time to break that minimum payment habit as soon as possible and cut down the amount of money you've been paying on interest.
Minimum payments can drag your repayment out to 10 years or more, costing hundreds or thousands in interest. Make it a priority to accelerate repayment of any high-interest credit card debt.
Handle Student Loans
If you have student loans, you generally have three to six months after graduation before payments must begin. Use this grace period to plan for the payments before they start. Find out how much the minimum payment will be and factor it into your budget now.
The faster you pay down these loans, the less it will cost you in interest over time. But don't let making student loan payments above the minimum a priority over building up your emergency or "rainy day" savings. Having savings in the bank can keep you from adding to your credit card debt if an unexpected expense pops up.
There is always a balance between managing debt and building up your savings. Tackle student loans and high-interest debt first since that's costing you money on interest, and go from there. Just be sure not to miss any payments, even if it's just the minimum.
Missing a payment can have a major impact on your credit score. If your lender offers automatic electronic payment, consider setting up monthly or bi-weekly payments to come right out of your bank account. At the very least, set up banking alerts to let you know when a bill due date is approaching.
Automate Your Savings Plan
The best way to begin saving and make it a regular habit is to create an automatic savings plan. If you have a set amount of money being set aside from each paycheck automatically, it is impossible to forget. In addition, once the money is saved automatically, after a few paychecks, you won’t even miss the money, but it will be there if you need it. Being prepared for unanticipated events and expenses is part of being a responsible adult.
A high-yield savings account is one option; a money market account or a CD account is another. When comparing savings options, remember to check the interest rate you can earn, and the fees and minimum deposit requirements.
Also, consider how accessible the money is. A high-yield savings account, for example, typically allows for up to six withdrawals per month, but a CD account would require you to wait until the CD matures to withdraw savings without a penalty.
Begin Saving for Retirement
If you’re like most young people starting in your first job, retirement seems like an eternity away. While it may be true that you have 40 or more years until retirement, don’t wait to begin saving. Even a very small amount can begin to add up thanks to the effect of compounding interest.
Check with your employer to see if they offer a retirement plan such as a 401k plan. Many companies even offer a matching program where you can essentially get free money just by saving yourself.
If your employer doesn’t sponsor a retirement plan, the next best thing to do is to open an IRA or individual retirement account. There are limits on what you can contribute annually, but every bit helps. And there's a distinct advantage to saving in your 20s. The longer you have to save, the longer your money has to grow through compound interest.
You may have questions about how much to begin saving. The typical answer is to begin contributing as much as you can afford to, but a great starting point is to take full advantage of any employer match.
For instance, if your employer offers a dollar for dollar match of up to 3% of your salary, consider contributing 3% of every paycheck. That way, you're maximizing your savings by not leaving any money on the table.
You've worked hard to finish school and land that great job, and you've certainly earned your pay. Reward yourself for being diligent and setting up your budget. While budgeting your money is wise, resentment can start to build if you put all of your money toward bills and savings without allowing any free spending for yourself.
Add a category in your budget for a "slush fund," which is the amount you want to set aside each month for discretionary spending on fun activities—things like a special new pair of shoes, or the premium for a new car payment.
The Balance does not provide tax, investment, or financial services and advice. The information is being presented without consideration of the investment objectives, risk tolerance, or financial circumstances of any specific investor and might not be suitable for all investors. Past performance is not indicative of future results. Investing involves risk, including the possible loss of principal.