Learn How To Calculate Dividend Yield
Discovering how to calculate the dividend yield for a stock is one of the best things a new investor can do because it allows an immediate, back-of-the-envelope comparison of the cash yield you would expect from owning a share of stock to the cash interest coupons you would expect had you selected a bond instead.
In fact, not only does dividend yield allow you to compare cash yields on a stock investment to an investment in bonds, it can provide a useful comparison to certificates of deposit, money market accounts, money market mutual funds or real estate investments, as well.
The Definition of Dividend Yield
The process of calculating dividend yields is fairly straightforward. When a company generates a profit, the board of directors often decides to distribute some of those earnings to the shareholders.
For example, when this article was originally published on Jan. 28, 2014, over the past 12 months, each share of McDonald's Corp. had generated $5.55 in after-tax profit, and the board decided to deliver $3.24 per share to the stockholders in cash. If you owned 100 shares, you would have received $324. If you owned 100,000 shares, you would have received $324,000.
The money given to the shareholders is called a dividend. The dividend yield is a financial calculation that tells you how much money you will earn for every dollar invested in the stock at today's price based on today's dividend rate.
How to Calculate Dividend Yield
To calculate the most common form of dividend yield, you take the per share cash dividend—keeping with our McDonald's example, it would have been $3.24—and divide it into the market price of the stock. When this article originally went to digital press, shares of the Big Mac empire closed at $94.07. Thus, to calculate the dividend yield we would take:
Cash Dividend ÷ Stock Price = Dividend Yield
So in this case, it would be:
$3.24 ÷ $94.07 = 0.0344 or 3.44%
This tells you that if you put $10,000 into McDonald's shares, you'd expect to collect $344 in dividends per year at the 2015 rate. If you put $1 million in McDonald's, you would expect to collect $34,400 in dividend income per year at the current rate. The 10-year Treasury bond yield, in contrast, was providing a return of 2.78% at the same time.
Dividend Yield on Market vs. Dividend Yield on Cost
The current dividend yield is only half the story. Unlike bond yields, which are based on a fixed rate of interest paid for the life of the bond, dividends for most successful companies increase over time.
Let's continue using McDonald's as an illustrative case study. Take a look at the dividend it distributed to shareholders between 2007 and 2012.
Note: If you come across this article at some point in the future, don't worry because there is no need to update the figures as the basic concept behind dividend yield remains the same no matter the year and no matter the specific dividend amounts you uncover in your investment research process:
- 2007 = $1.50 dividend
- 2008 = $1.63 dividend
- 2009 = $2.05 dividend
- 2010 = $2.26 dividend
- 2011 = $2.53 dividend
- 2012 = $2.87 dividend
If you bought McDonald's stock back in 2007, you'd see your dividends increase each and every year. You're collecting far more than you originally anticipated based on the dividend yield on the purchase date. In fact, during that year, the stock averaged almost exactly $53 per share, so imagine you bought a single share.
On the day you paid for your stock, you were collecting $1.50 in dividends on a $53 stock, which is a dividend yield of 2.83%. Over the past 12 months, you've collected a dividend of $3.24.
Comparing that $3.24 to the purchase price instead of the market price, you can calculate something known as "dividend yield on cost". This calculation shows the dividend yield for the original amount of investment. In this case, you're actually earning the equivalent of 6.11% per year on your original investment. This can serve as a major driver of change in the stock price.
The truly elite dividend payers on Wall Street, those businesses that have raised their dividend payouts to owners each year, without fail, for 25 years or longer, earn a title "Dividend Aristocrat". The first list of aristocrats was published in 1989 with a total of 26 companies. Since then, that list has grown, with the current list boasting more than 50 different companies including Chevron, Johnson & Johnson, Kimberly-Clark, Coca-Cola, Procter & Gamble, AT&T, Target, and Walmart.
McDonald's has expressed a commitment to raising its dividend so much, in fact, that 2019 is the 43rd year in a row that it has sent bigger checks to its stockholders. That puts it in a league of its own among other blue chips on Wall Street. Only a handful of other firms can boast such a sterling achievement. When revisited on Dec. 8, 2019, McDonald's had continued its record practice of raising its dividend each year:
- 2013 = $3.12
- 2014 = $3.28
- 2015 = $3.44
- 2016 = $3.61
- 2017 = $3.83
- 2018 = $4.19
That means our original hypothetical investor who bought the stock at $53 per share back in 2007 has now collected a cumulative $34.31. That means they collected 64.9% of the original cash outlay for their ownership stake in McDonald's back in the form of dividends.
Imagine McDonald's declared bankruptcy—an almost unthinkable possibility given its financial strength and wide geographic diversification, but one that could happen in a remote-probability scenario—and the stock went to $0.
In this case, our investor has that $34.31 in cash they collected from the dividends. Though still very real, this means the loss itself wouldn't have been nearly as painful. In actuality, the stock price is now $174.03 per share as the market has adjusted to reflect the increased underlying profitability that has occurred during this span of time.
This means our investor would enjoy not only $34.31 in cash dividends but $121.03 in unrealized capital gains for a total profit of $155.34 on each $53 invested.
Attractive Dividend Yields May be a Trap
On the flip side of the equation are the dividend traps that ensnare inexperienced investors. These are companies that look like they are going to make you a lot of money by boasting extremely high dividend yields—often many times over what the stock market as a whole is offering. One defensive move in a situation like this is to look at the dividend yield of a company relative to others in its industry.
The Balance does not provide tax, investment, or financial services and advice. The information is being presented without consideration of the investment objectives, risk tolerance, or financial circumstances of any specific investor and might not be suitable for all investors. Past performance is not indicative of future results. Investing involves risk including the possible loss of principal.
McDonald's Corporation. "2013 Annual Report," Page 12. Accessed Nov. 9, 2020.
Corporate Finance Institute. "Dividend." Accessed Nov. 9, 2020.
U.S. Department of the Treasury. "Daily Treasury Yield Curve Rates." Accessed Nov. 9, 2020.
McDonald's Corporation. "2012 Annual Room," Page 9. Accessed Nov. 9, 2020.
ProShares. "S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats ETF." Accessed Nov. 9. 2020.
McDonald's Corporation. "2014 Annual Report," Page 10. Accessed Nov. 9, 2020.
McDonald's Corporation. "2016 Annual Report," Page 10. Accessed Nov. 9, 2020.
McDonald's Corporation. "2019 Annual Report," Page 17. Accessed Nov. 9, 2020