Health Care Inequality in the US
Health Care Inequality Correlates With Income Inequality
Health care inequality is when one group of people in an economy is in much worse health than another group, with limited access to care. In the United States, health and health care inequality is correlated with income inequality. Research has found that the higher your income, the better your health.
One reason health care inequality in America is so high is that it's the only developed country that relies on private health insurance. As a result, those with corporate-sponsored plans have better access to health care than those who didn't. Before the Affordable Care Act, around 20% of Americans had little or no health insurance. As a result, almost 45,000 of them died each year because they couldn't afford the high cost of health care
Others found their savings were wiped out, they lost their homes, and incurred credit card debt. The economy suffered, since half of all bankruptcies were caused by high medical costs.
Health Care Inequality
Between 2011 and 2013, 38% of those in households making less than $22,500 a year reported being in poor or fair health. Only 12% in households making more than $47,700 a year reported being in poor to fair health. This was true even when both groups were covered by insurance.
The most affluent men 1% lived 15 years longer than the poorest 1% of men.
The gap for women was 10 years. That's the same number of years that smoking shortens life expectancy.
Low-income adults are more than three times as likely as affluent adults to have trouble with the activities of daily living. Chronic illness makes them too sick to eat, bathe, or dress without help. Their children are more likely to be obese and have elevated blood lead levels than those in high-income families.
Structural inequality seems to be worsening. Between 1979 and 2007, after-tax income increased 275% for the wealthiest 1% of households. It rose 65% for the top fifth. The bottom fifth only increased by 18%. That's true even adding all income from Social Security, welfare, and other government payments.
During this time, the wealthiest 5% increased their share of total income by 10%, with most of those gains going to the top 1%. Everyone else saw their share shrink by 1% to 2 %. As a result, economic mobility worsened.
The 2008 financial crisis saw the rich get richer. In 2012, the top 10% of earners took home 50% of all income. That's the highest percentage in the last 100 years, according to a study by economists, Emmanuel Saez, and Thomas Piketty.
Causes of Health Care Inequality
There are six reasons why low-income families have poor health.
The Poor Are More Likely to Be Sick
A 2013 study found that the number of low-income families in poor health was 15% higher than affluent families. High blood pressure affected 38.6% of the poorest fifth in the study compared to 29.9% of the richest fifth.
Disparities in Care
Low-income neighborhoods may not have nearby access to the best hospitals, doctors’ offices, and medical technology. This is especially true in rural areas. Southern states also have poorer care than northern ones if judged by health outcomes.
Rising Cost of Health Care
The rising cost of health care can throw people into poverty. A 2018 study found that medical expenses pushed 7 million people below the federal poverty line. Medical bills have become collection agencies’ biggest business. Every year, around 530,000 people declare medical bankruptcy.
Lack of Access to Health Insurance
Many of the working poor don't qualify for Medicaid. They can receive a subsidy under Obamacare, but often those policies only cover certain hospitals and doctors' practices. Again, in rural areas, the covered medical services may be insufficient.
Health insurance companies have been increasing patients' medical costs through higher deductibles, which doubled between 2007 to 2017.
At the same time, employers have reduced their share. Between 2006 and 2018, the average deductible in employer-sponsored health plans has risen 255%.
Poor Health Can Create Poverty
Those with poor health are likely to wind up in poverty. It is difficult to find and maintain a high-paying job if you are chronically ill. Diseases such as alcoholism and drug addiction can make any continuous job impossible.
The sixth cause is that the elderly are more likely to be unwell. They are also more likely to be poor. In 2016, half of all people on Medicare had incomes less than $26,200. Almost 10% lived below the poverty level.
How Health Care Inequality Affects You
Health care inequality increases the cost of medical care for everyone. People who can't afford preventive care wind up in the hospital emergency room. For example, it's probably less expensive to treat diabetes with medication than to treat a diabetic coma in the hospital.
The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act requires hospitals to treat anyone who shows up in the emergency room. These uninsured patients cost hospitals a staggering $10 billion a year. The hospitals passed this cost along to Medicaid. That cost is added to your tax bill.
In 2009, almost half of those who used a hospital said they went because they had no other place to go for health care. They use the emergency room as their primary care physician. It's one reason the number of emergency room visits increased from 90.3 million in 1996 to 145.3 million in 2017.
Even those in the middle class who have insurance face devastation from health care inequality.
When it comes to medical bankruptcy, the insured were 6% more likely to have declared bankruptcy in the past than the uninsured. They were not prepared for unexpected deductible and coinsurance costs. Almost two-thirds didn't know their hospital wasn't part of their plan. Around 25% found that the insurance denied their claims.
Even those with Medicare aren't safe. The average 65-year-old couple faces $295,000 in medical bills during retirement. Most of them haven't saved enough to pay these bills without destroying their retirement dreams.
Making Health Care More Equal
Universal health care is a system that provides quality medical services to all citizens. The federal government offers it to everyone regardless of their ability to pay. It has several advantages.
- It lowers health care costs for an economy. The government controls the price of medication and medical services through negotiation and regulation. It also eliminates the administrative costs of dealing with different private health insurers. Health care providers don't have to hire staff to deal with different health insurance company rules.
- It forces hospitals and doctors to provide the same standard of service at a low cost. In a competitive environment like the United States, health care providers focus on new technology. They offer expensive services and pay doctors more. They try to compete by targeting the wealthy. That allows them to charge more to get a higher profit.
Those who have claimed the Earned Income Tax Credit find their children have a healthier birth weight.
Full-day childcare for children five and under leads to measurably healthier adults. Their blood pressure is lower and they are less likely to be obese.
Community-based health clinics help reduce health care inequality in low-income areas. It's critical that they teach patients how to care for their chronic diseases. Studies show they can improve the health statistics in the neighborhood.
Urban Institute. "How Are Income and Wealth Linked to Health and Longevity?" Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Universal Health Insurance in the United States: Reflections on the Past, the Present, and the Future." Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
The Commonwealth Fund. "Underinsured Rate Rose From 2014-2018, With Greatest Growth Among People in Employer Health Plans." Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
PNHP. "New Study Finds 45,000 Deaths Annually Linked to Lack of Health Hoverage," Page 2229. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
David U. Himmelstein, Elizabeth Warren, Deborah Thorne, and Steffie Woolhandler. "Illness And Injury As Contributors To Bankruptcy," Health Affairs. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
Joachim O. Hero, Alan M. Zaslavsky, and Robert J. Blendon. “The United States Leads Other Nations In Differences By Income In Perceptions Of Health And Health Care,” Health Affairs. Nov. 2, 2020.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. "The Association Between Income and Life Expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014." Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
JAMA Network. "Income, Poverty, and Health Inequality," Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
Congressional Budget Office. "Trends in the Distribution of Household Income Between 1979 and 2007." Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
University of Berkeley. "The Rich Got Richer: The Effects of the Financial Crisis on Household Well-Being, 2007-2009," Page 5. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
University of California, Berkley. "Striking it Richer: The Evolution of Top Incomes in the United States," Pages 3-7. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Chronic Disease Disparities by County Economic Status and Metropolitan Classification, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013." Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
Kaiser Family Foundation. "Health and Health Coverage in the South: A Data Update." Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
American Public Health Association. "The Effects of Household Medical Expenditures on Income Inequality in the United States," Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
Healthcare.gov. "Subsidized Coverage." Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
Peterson-KFF. "Deductible Relief Day: How Rising Deductibles Are Affecting People With Employer Coverage." Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
The Kaiser Family Foundation. "2015 Employer Health Benefits Survey," Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
The Kaiser Family Foundation. "Income and Assets of Medicare Beneficiaries, 2016-2035," Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
The Kaiser Family Foundation. "How Many Seniors Live in Poverty?" Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
National Center for Biotechnology Information. "The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA): What It Is and What It Means for Physicians," Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Emergency Room Use Among Adults Aged 18–64: Early Release of Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, January–June 2011," Page 1. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
American College of Emergency Physicians. “The Latest Emergency Department Utilization Numbers Are In.” Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
The Kaiser Family Foundation. "The Burden of Medical Debt: Results from the Kaiser Family Foundation/New York Times Medical Bills Survey." Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
Fidelity. "How to Plan for Rising Health Care Costs." Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
University of California, Berkley. "Income, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and Infant Health," Page 1 of PDF. Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.
Science Magazine. "Early Childhood Investments Substantially Boost Adult Health," Accessed Nov. 2, 2020.