March 4: Herbert Hoover became President. He expanded protection of government employees, canceled private oil leases on federal property, and directed the FBI to arrest Al Capone. He added 5.3 million acres to federal parks and forests, and planned for dams in the Tennessee Valley. He established the Federal Farm Board to help farmers raise prices. He lowered the top income tax rate from 25 percent to 24 percent (Source: "Historical Highest Marginal Income Tax Rates," Tax Policy Center, February 19, 2015. "The Ordeal of Herbert Hoover," National Archives, Summer 2004, Vol. 36, No. 2.)
August: The economic activity from the Roaring Twenties reached its peak. After that, it started to contract. That same month, the Fed raised the discount rate from 5 percent to 6 percent to prevent inflation and defend the gold standard. (Source: "Monetary Policy and the Great Crash of 1929," Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Economic Letter, March 26, 1999.)
September 3: Dow reached a record of 381.7.
October 24: Black Thursday kicked off the stock market crash of 1929. Stock prices immediately fell 11 percent. Wall Street bankers bought stocks, so only 2 percent was lost by the time the market closed.
October 25 and 26: Stocks gained 1 percent on Friday, but lost 1 percent during a half-day of trading on Saturday.
October 28: On Black Monday, stocks prices fell 13 percent.
October 29: On Black Tuesday, the market lost another 12 percent as a record 16 million shares were traded. When banks intervened this time, they worsened the panic. The stock market would not return to its pre-crash high for the next 25 years.
November 23: The stock market hits bottom and began trading sideways.
December: The unemployment rate was still just 3.2 percent. Since unemployment is a lagging indicator, it hadn't started to worsen yet.
There were 650 bank failures. As banks failed, it reduced the money supply because there was less credit available. That meant each dollar was worth more. As the value of the dollar rose, prices fell. That reduced revenue for businesses. It also meant that debt now cost more for lenders to pay back. That created a ripple effect of personal and business bankruptcies. For more, see When Did the Great Depression Start?
June 17: Hoover signed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act. It raised taxes on 900 imports. It originally was supposed to help farmers, but ended up imposing tariffs on hundreds of other products. Other countries retaliated, and global trade began shrinking.
A drought hit 23 states from the Mississippi River to mid-Atlantic region It was the first of what was later called the Dust Bowl drought, the worst in 300 years. As crops failed, farmers could not produce enough to eat. At first, President Hoover asked the Red Cross to help. As the crisis worsened, Congress appropriated $65 million for seed, feed, and food boxes.
July 21: Hoover created the Department of Veterans Affairs.
November 7: The Bank of Tennessee failed. That led to failures of affiliate banks in the next few days. Although the economy was improving, weaknesses in the banking system pulled it back down. Only one-third of the nation's 24,000 banks belonged to the Federal Reserve banking system. Non-members did not have enough access to reserves to fend off bank runs. As bank failures grew, depositors rushed to banks to pull out their savings. Banks only hold 10 percent of all deposits, so they can lend out the rest. A bank run will quickly put it out of business. In the fall of 1930, bank runs spread throughout the Southeastern United States. By the end of the year, 1,300 banks had failed. (Source: "Bank Run," History.com.)
December 11: The Bank of the United States failed. It was the fourth-largest bank in the nation, the largest bank failure in history at that time. (Source: "Banking Crises and the Federal Reserve as a Lender of Last Resort during the Great Depression," NBER Research.)
February: Food riots broke out in Minneapolis.
The drought continued, hitting eight Southern states the worst. It was the worst drought in the 20th century for Arkansas.
The economy shrank 6.4 percent. The unemployment rate rose to 15.9 percent. Prices fell another 9.3 percent.
January: Congress created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to lend $2 billion to financial institutions to prevent further failures. In July, Congress authorized it to lend money to states for relief. (Source: "Timeline of the Great Depression," PBS.)
February: Fed purchased $1 billion in securities from banks as part of its open market operations. That added liquidity to cash-strapped banks.
March: Economy bottomed after shrinking 27 percent since its peak in August 1929.
June 6: Hoover signed the Revenue Act of 1932. It increased the top income tax rate to 63 percent. He wanted to reduce the federal deficit. Hoover believed it would also restore confidence. Instead, higher taxes worsened the Depression.
July 8: Dow bottomed at 41.22. That was a 90 percent slide from its September 1929 pre-crash high.
September: Bank failures slowed, construction contracts increased 30 percent, and department store sales rose 8 percent. (Source: "A Reconsideration of the Revenue Act of 1932," David Zalewski, Providence College.)
Fourteen dust storms hit the midwest. The economy shrank 12.9 percent, unemployment rose to 23.6 percent, and prices fell 10.3 percent.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt took office. He launched the New Deal on March 9 with the Emergency Banking Act. It closed all U.S. banks to stop devastating failures. On the 20th, the Government Economy Act cut government spending to finance the New Deal. Two days later, the Beer-Wine Revenue Act ended Prohibition and taxed alcohol sales to raise revenue. On March 31, the Civilian Conservation Corps was launched to hire 3 million workers that maintained public lands.
April 19: FDR stopped a run on gold by abandoning the gold standard. He ordered everyone to exchange private gold for dollars. For more, see History of the Gold Standard.
May: The Federal Emergency Relief Act created more Federal jobs. The Agricultural Adjustment Act paid farmers to limit crops, thus raising prices. The Emergency Farm Mortgage Act provided loans to save farms from foreclosure. The Tennessee Valley Authority Act built power stations in the poorest area in the nation. The Securities Act required companies to educate investors when issuing stock.
June: The government stopped repaying dollars with gold.The Home Owners Loan Corporation refinanced mortgages to prevent foreclosures. The Glass-Steagall Act separated investment banking from retail banking, and created the FDIC. The National Industrial Recovery Act created the Public Works Administration which added more jobs. The National Recovery Administration outlawed child labor, established a minimum wage, and limited the workday to eight hours. It also allowed trade unions to bargain with employers.The Emergency Railroad Transportation Act coordinated the national railway systems.
November 8: The Civil Works Administration created four million construction jobs.
Forty-eight dust storms pummeled Oklahoma and surrounding states. Farmers slaughtered 6 million pigs to reduce supply and boost prices. The public criticized the waste of food. FDR created the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation to use excess farm output to feed the poor. (Source: "Drought in the Dust Bowl Years," National Drought Mitigation Center.)
The economy shrank 1.3 percent. Unemployment rose to a record 24.9 percent. Prices rose 0.8 percent. The national debt was $23 billion. For more, see Effects of the Great Depression.
June 27: The Federal Housing Administration provided Federal mortgage insurance. The Securities and Exchange Commission regulated the stock market. The FCC consolidated all federal regulation of telephone, telegraph, and radio communications.
The hottest year ever. There were 29 consecutive days with temperatures at or above 100°. By the end of the year, droughts covered 75 percent of the country and 27 states. Nearly 80 percent of the country recorded extremely dry conditions.
The economy grew 10.8 percent in response to the New Deal Programs. Unemployment fell to 21.7 percent. Prices rose 1.5 percent. The debt rose to $27 billion.
The Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. FDR launched more programs focused on the poor, the unemployed, and farmers.
February 26: The Soil Conservation & Domestic Allotment Act paid farmers to plant soil-building crops.
May 20: The Rural Electrification Act helped farms to generate electricity for their areas.
July: The National Labor Relations Act/Wagner Act protected workers' rights and created the National Labor Relations Board.
April 30: The Resettlement Administration trained and provided loans to farmers.
August: The Social Security Act provided income to the elderly, the blind, the disabled, and children in low-income families. For more, see the Social Security Trust Fund.
Economy grew 8.9 percent. Unemployment fell to 20.1 percent. Prices rose 3.0 percent. The debt rose to $29 billion.
June: The hottest summer on record began. Eight states experienced temperatures at 110° or greater.
July: Twelve additional states experienced temperatures at or above 110°, including four that broke 120°.
August - Texas experienced 120° record-breaking temperatures.
The heat wave directly killed 1,693 people. Another 3,500 people drowned while trying to cool off. (Source: "The Great Heat Wave of 1936," Wunderground. "Earth's Deadliest Heat Waves," Wunderground. "Heat Waves Throughout History," History.com)
FDR raised the top tax rate to 79 percent. The economy grew 12.9 percent. Unemployment shrank to 16.9 percent. Prices rose 1.4 percent. The debt grew to $34 billion.
FDR began his second term. He launched a third New Deal. The Wagner-Steagall Act funded state-run public housing projects. The Bonneville Power Administration delivered and sold power from the Bonneville Dam. The Farm Tenancy Act provided loans for tenant farmers to buy farms. The Farm Security Administration replaced the Resettlement Administration.
But FDR cut spending to reduce the debt. That cutback in New Deal spending pushed the economy back into the Depression. FDR pushed Congress to enact a $5 billion relief program. It included the Federal National Mortgage Association that resold mortgages on the secondary market. The New Agricultural Adjustment Act remedied the 1933 AAA. The Fair Labor Standards Act established the U.S. minimum wage, overtime pay and youth employment standards.
May: Economy started contracting again, as the Depression resumed.
For the year, the economy grew 5.1 percent, unemployment fell to 14.3 percent, and prices rose 2.9 percent. The debt barely rose to $37 billion.
June: Economy started to grow again. The Great Depression was over.
For the year, the economy shrank 3.3 percent. Unemployment rose to 19 percent. Prices fell 2.8 percent.The debt grew slightly to $37 billion.
The drought returned. Louisiana experienced record temperatures.
The Federal Security Agency was launched to administer Social Security, federal education funding, and food and drug safety.
September: Hitler invaded Poland, starting World War II.
November: FDR convinced Congress to repeal U.S. military arms embargo to France and Britain. (Source: "World War II," George Washington University.)
Economy grew 8 percent, unemployment fell to 17.2 percent, and prices remained flat. The debt rose to $40 billion.
June: Hitler conquered France and bombed London. U.S. began sending arms to Britain. Congress reinstated the military draft.
FDR increased the defense budget and raised the top income tax rate to 81 percent.
Economy grew 8.8 percent. Unemployment fell to 14.6 percent. Prices crept up 0.7 percent. The debt rose to $51 billion.
FDR began his third term.
The drought ended as near-normal rainfall returned.
March: The United States sent war supplies to England.
October: Germany sank a U.S. Navy destroyer.
December 7, 1941: Japan attacked the Pearl Harbor Navy base. Congress declared war on Japan. (Source: "World War II Timeline," National Geographic.)
The economy grew 17.7 percent, unemployment plummeted to 9.9 percent, and prices rose 9.9 percent. The debt grew to $58 billion. For more, see U.S. Debt by President.
November 23: The Dow closed at 382.74. That was the first time it exceeded 381.7, the record set on September 3, 1929.
Great Depression Timeline: 1929 - 1941
The timeline of the Great Depression was from August 1929 to June 1938, nearly 10 years. The economy started to shrink in August, months before the stock market crash in October. It began growing again in 1938, but unemployment remained above 10 percent until 1941. That's when the United States entered World War II. (Source: "Frequently Asked Questions," NBER.)