Going Back to Work After Retirement
Pros and Cons of a Revolving Door Retirement
Retirement is not a destination, it's a journey—often a lengthy and adventurous journey. Some retirees find this out the hard way when dividends from their investment portfolios and even Social Security no longer meet their income needs.
So what do you do when faced with financial challenges in retirement? You can either cut your expenses or increase your income. More retirees are choosing the latter, increasing their incomes by going back to work after retirement. Some call this the second act but I prefer another nickname: the revolving door retirement.
Pushing through the revolving door from retirement back to work is not quite as simple as it sounds. If you are driven to work doing something you love, then go for it. However, if you are deciding whether a revolving door retirement makes sense for you, be aware there may be tax consequences, Social Security consequences, and increased spending on your part. Here's what you should consider before going back to work in retirement.
If you have been out of the working world for a few years, you may not recall how much you used to spend getting dressed for the office, commuting there and back, and eating and drinking while there. Expenses for things like clothing, commuting costs, and meals eaten out of the house can add up quickly, so be sure to weigh them against your potential income. Or consider finding a work-at-home or close-to-home job where these factors are not relevant or will not significantly cut into the income you earn.
If animals or other people have come to rely on your daily care, you may also have to pay for a surrogate, such as a dog walker or day nurse.
Income Tax Considerations
The other side effect of increasing your income is potentially bumping yourself into a higher income tax rate. Remember, one of the benefits of taking distributions from a 401(k) or IRA in retirement is that you are likely in a lower income-tax bracket and therefore paying less tax. Earning a ton of income in your retirement years can impact your tax rate and how much you pay for retirement account distributions.
Social Security Considerations
The Social Security questions get a little tricky, depending on your age and whether you are already collecting benefits. Let's start there. If you are collecting Social Security but have not reached the normal retirement age (currently somewhere between age 66 and 67 if you were born after 1943), going back to work will cost you, at least for now. For every $2 you earn over the annual limit (which is $17,040 in 2018), you lose $1 in benefits. Before you reach normal retirement age, the annual limit rises (to $45,360 in 2018) and you lose $1 in benefits for every $3 earned.
When your birthday month comes and you have reached full retirement age, you receive full benefits regardless of your earnings.
If you start receiving Social Security after reaching full retirement age, you receive full benefits regardless of your earnings.
If you started receiving Social Security early and go back to work within a year, you can stop receiving benefits, pay back the year's worth of benefits, and regain the opportunity to get full benefits later on.
If you are covered by Medicare, you should consider whether a new employer's insurance benefits will change your coverage. When individuals age 65 or older are covered by group health insurance because they are working or a spouse is working, the group plan typically pays first, before Medicare benefits kick in. This can depend on the size of the company you work for.
Retirement Savings Considerations
Of course, if you are younger than age 70 and earning income, you have the opportunity to put a portion aside in a retirement account, such as an IRA or 401(k). When the revolving door stops at full retirement, you could have a little more savings waiting there for you.