Fascism, Its Characteristics, Pros, and Cons with Examples
Can Fascism Occur in a Democracy?
Fascism is an economic system in which the government controls the private entities that own the factors of production. The four factors are entrepreneurship, capital goods, natural resources, and labor. A central planning authority directs company leaders to work in the national interest.
Under fascism, national interests supersede all other societal needs. It subsumes private people and businesses into a vision of the good of the state.
In its quest to do so, it is willing to become a "bully," according to George Orwell in "What Is Fascism?"
Fascism uses nationalism to override individual self-interest. It subjugates the welfare of the general population to achieve imperative social goals. It works with existing social structures, instead of destroying them. It focuses on "internal cleansing and external expansion," according to Professor Robert Paxton in "The Anatomy of Fascism." This can justify the use of violence to rid the society of minorities and opponents.
Fascist movements and regimes are different from military dictatorships and authoritarian regimes. They seek to enlist rather than exclude the masses. They often collapse the distinction between the public and private sphere. It eliminates private sector interests by absorbing them into the public good. In the words of Robert Ley, the head of the Nazi Labor Office, the only private individual who existed in Nazi Germany was someone asleep.
Fascism derives from the Latin word fasces. It was a tied bundle of rods surrounding an ax and the symbol of ancient Rome. It meant the individuals in a society should subvert their will for the good of the state.
Seven Characteristics of Fascism
Fascism uses Social Darwinism as its base. It legitimizes any studies that support the concept of national characteristics and the superiority of the nation's majority race.
The research must support fascism's vision that a strong nation must be homogeneous to avoid decadence.
Fascist regimes have these seven characteristics:
- Usurpation: The state overtakes and merges with corporate power and sometimes the church.
- Nationalism: Leaders appeal to a nostalgic wish to return to an earlier golden age. That can include a return to a simple, virtuous pastoral life.
- Militarism: Leaders glorify military strength through propaganda.
- Father figure: A leader assumes the role of the father of the nation. He creates a cult status as a "dauntless ruler beholden to no one."
- Mass appeal: A leader claims that the people, manifested as the state, can achieve anything. If they don't succeed, it's because of naysayers, minority groups, and saboteurs.
- Government surveillance: The government takes an active role in suppressing dissent. It rewards people who report on each other.
- Persecution: The state violently persecutes minority groups and opponents.
Fascist economies are good at wholly transforming societies to conform to a planner's vision. They have many of the same benefits of any centrally planned economies and mobilize economic resources on a large scale. They execute massive projects and create industrial power.
For example, the Soviet Union's centrally planned economy built up its military power to defeat Nazi Germany in World War II. It then quickly rebuilt its economy after the war.
A central planning authority cannot get accurate, detailed, and timely information about consumers' needs. That happens naturally in a free market economy, but central planners set wages and prices. They lose the valuable feedback these indicators provide about supply and demand.
As a result, there often are shortages of consumer goods. All production is geared toward those that serve the national interest, like military equipment and public works. To compensate, citizens create a black market to trade the things a fascist economy doesn't provide. This erodes public trust in the government and creates cynicism and rebellion in the long run.
Fascism either ignores or attacks those who don't aid attainment of the national values. This includes minority groups, the elderly, the developmentally challenged, and their caretakers. It attacks groups that it blames for past economic ailments. The others are viewed as extraneous or an unnecessary drag on prosperity. They may be viewed as bad for the genetic pool and sterilized.
Fascism aids only those who align with the national values. They may use their power to rig the system and create additional barriers to entry. This includes laws, educational attainment, and capital. In the long term, this can limit diversity and the innovation it creates.
Fascism ignores external costs, such as pollution. This makes goods cheaper and more accessible. It also depletes natural resources and lowers the quality of life in affected areas.
Differences Between Fascism, Capitalism, Socialism, and Communism
The following chart provides a quick, visual breakdown of how systems of government differ:
|Factors of production are owned by||Individuals||Everyone||Everyone||Individuals|
|Factors of production are valued for||Nation Building||Usefulness to people||Usefulness to people||Profit|
|Allocation decided by||Central plan||Central plan||Central plan||Law of supply and demand|
|From each according to his||Value to the Nation||Ability||Ability||Market decides|
|To each according to his||Value to the Nation||Need||Contribution||Income, wealth and borrowing ability|
Fascism Vs. Capitalism
Fascism and capitalism both allow entrepreneurship. A fascist society restricts it to those who contribute to the national interest; entrepreneurs must follow the orders of the central planners. They can become very profitable, but not because they are in touch with the market.
Many entrepreneurs are independent-minded. They prefer to take orders from customers, not the government. Fascism can destroy this entrepreneurial spirit, thus limiting the innovation that creates jobs, more tax revenue, and higher stock prices. Fascist nations miss this comparative advantage over other countries. For instance, technological innovation is one factor that keeps the United States several steps ahead of most nations. Silicon Valley is America's innovative advantage.
Fascism, like capitalism, does not promote equality of opportunity. Those without the proper nutrition, support, and education may never make it to the playing field. Society will never benefit from their valuable skills.
Fascism Vs. Socialism
In both fascism and socialism, the government rewards companies for their contribution. The difference is that socialist governments own the companies in strategic industries such as oil, gas, and other energy-related resources.
Fascist governments allow private citizens to own them. The state may own some companies, but it is more likely to establish cartels of business within the industries. It hands out contracts, thereby co-opting business owners to serve the state.
Fascism Vs. Communism
In the past, fascism gained power in countries where communism also had become a threat. Business owners preferred the fascist leader because they thought they could control him. They were more afraid of a communist revolution where they lost all their wealth and power.
How Fascism Overtakes Democracy
Fascist leaders can rise to power through democratic elections. Economist Milton Friedman suggested that democracy can exist only in a capitalistic society. However, many countries have had fascist economic components and a democratically elected government. Adolf Hitler was elected to power in Germany and used his position to overthrow his enemies and become a fascist leader.
Fascism grows if three ingredients are in place. First, a nation must be in a severe economic crisis. Second, people must believe that existing institutions and government parties cannot improve the situation. The third ingredient is a sense that a country used to be great. People look to a charismatic leader to restore the nation to greatness and tolerate the loss of civil liberties if it allows them to regain past glory.
It is unlikely the United States could succumb to fascism without violating or eliminating the Constitution. It protects the rights of minorities from the very persecution that fascists thrive on, it has checks and balances, and a fascist leader would have to dissolve Congress and the Supreme Court to attain full power.
The U.S. Constitution also protects the free market, but that is consistent with fascism. For example:
- Article I, Section 8 establishes the protection of innovation through copyright.
- Article I, Sections 9 and 10 protect free enterprise and freedom of choice and prohibit states from taxing each others' production.
- Amendment IV prohibits unreasonable government searches and seizures, thereby protecting private property.
- Amendment V protects the ownership of private property.
- Amendment XIV prohibits the government from taking property without due process of law.
- Amendments IX and X limit the government's power to those specifically outlined in Constitution. All other powers not mentioned are conferred to the people.
Fascism was one of the consequences of World War I, the Bolshevik Revolution, and the Great Depression. The war created thousands of angry and disenchanted veterans. They felt the government had betrayed them by sending them into an unnecessary conflict. The revolution in Russia made everyone afraid of the spread of communism. The depression made people desperate for a better life.
Fascist leaders became successful by appealing to nationalism. They used violence to intimidate others and convinced the ruling elite to share power in return for beating the communists. Three prominent examples:
- Italy: Benito Mussolini first used the word "fascist" in 1919. He was elected, but only by 4,796 votes. The existing government helped him rise to power to fight off the communists. They also wanted to co-opt and use his violent militia. Italian fascists believed that since the development of the nation-state was a scientific fact, its preservation ought to be the object of state policy. Italy organized private companies into 22 sectors that had Fascist Party members as senior participants. State agencies had shares in many strategic companies. The Instituto Mobiliare controlled the country's credit.
- Germany: Hitler won 37.2 percent of the vote in 1932. Wealthy business owners aided his ascent. In return, they received government contracts and slave labor. Government cartels controlled the finance, manufacturing, and agriculture industries. They allowed owners to get rich from the profits while lowering wages for the workers.
- Spain: Francisco Franco ruled Spain from 1939 to 1975. He overthrew the democratically elected government during the Spanish Civil War. At first, he steered Spain toward economic independence. That didn't help an economy already battered by the civil war and then World War II. Spain suffered from recession and the growth of a black market. In the 1960s, Franco opened up Spain's markets to free trade and foreign investment.