The U.S. credit card industry has moved to a more secure type of credit card—the EMV credit card, also called chip-and-PIN or chip-and-signature credit cards.
Your credit cards may have a metal square on the front above the card number (what you see is really a protective overlay for the chip).
What Is an EMV Credit Card and Why Does It Have a Chip?
The EMV chip credit card—named for Europay, MasterCard, and Visa, the companies who created the standard—is a safer type of credit card. Similar to the magnetic strip on your old credit cards, the chip on the EMV credit card holds your credit card information and transmits the information to payment processors in a way that's tougher for criminals to hack and use.
The chip technology has changed the way credit cards are used in many face-to-face transactions.
How to Use Your EMV Credit Card
When you’re making a purchase with an EMV credit card at an EMV-enabled terminal or card reader, there’s a slot below the numeric keypad where you “dip” your credit card. Place your credit card into the slot and follow the prompts on the screen. You must leave your card there until the transaction has processed; it’s not a swipe-and-go motion like with the magnetic strip.
The transaction takes slightly longer to process versus swiping your credit card for transactions. If you’re at a terminal that is not EMV-enabled, whether you have an EMV credit card or not, swipe your card in one quick motion to complete the transaction.
Online purchases have the same process, even with EMV-chip credit cards. You still enter your credit card number, expiration date, security code, and billing address.
EMV Cards Don't Currently Require a PIN
A chip-and-PIN version of the EMV card has been used for years in other countries. These cards use chip technology and require the cardholder to enter a PIN for your credit card transactions, similar to what you do when you use your debit card as "debit."
The U.S. credit card industry has moved primarily to chip-and-signature. The four major credit card issuers—Visa, Mastercard, American Express, and Discover—announced in 2018 that they would not require signatures, although retailers may independently request them. Some EMV credit cards issued in the U.S. have chip-and-PIN or a hybrid of signature and PIN capability. With debit cards, you have the option to enter your PIN or to complete as a "credit" transaction by skipping the PIN and signing your receipt.
If your card is also contactless, you'll see a contactless symbol on the front of the card. You can simply tap your credit card on the credit card reader to complete your transaction.
What Makes EMV Cards Safer to Use
Reducing credit card fraud and shifting more liability to merchants are two of the major reasons for the switch to EMV credit cards. They are safer than the traditional credit cards that only held information on the magnetic strip.
EMV credit cards contain a small computer chip that creates a unique code for each transaction and sends that code through the credit card processing system to authorize the transaction. After the code has been used, it can’t be used again. So, if a hacker gets access to this code and attempts to use the data for credit card purchases, the transaction would be declined since the code has already been used.
Chip technology makes it virtually impossible for criminals to create counterfeit cards with your credit card information, assuming you always use EMV at checkout.
Why Credit Card Fraud Is Still Possible With EMV Cards
Chip technology has reduced credit card fraud. In-person credit card fraud for both chip-authenticated and no-chip payments dropped in 2016, the first year after EMV use became widespread in the U.S., when the share of EMV payments rose from 3.2% to 26.4%. Card fraud had increased from 2012 to 2015. Visa reported in 2018 that fraud dropped 76% for merchants that adopted EMV in the three years after liability for fraudulent swipes shifted to them in October 2015.
While most cards and terminals support magnetic swiping as backup, swiped credit card purchases still carry the same risk of fraud. Plus, thieves can still use physically stolen credit cards.
Only 48% of major fuel and convenience merchants had fully implemented EMV by April 17, 2021, the deadline (after several extensions) for gas stations to comply with EMV automated fuel dispenser mandates, according to a survey of 45,000 gas stations nationwide by ACI Worldwide. Gas stations have been favored by credit card hackers because it's easier to install credit card skimmers.
Online transactions still carry the same risk of fraud. Hackers may get better at phishing – tricking you into giving up your credit card information by disguising themselves as a business or person you know and trust. They may breach businesses where you’ve stored your credit card number for one-click shopping or recurring subscriptions. Continue to practice safe habits when you're shopping online.
Not All Merchants Have Currently EMV Card Equipment
Most retailers have replaced their credit card terminals to accept EMV credit cards. The EMV chip card deployment and adoption rate in the U.S. was 63% at the end of 2020, according to analysis by EMVCo of statistics from major card issuers.
As of October 1, 2015, retailers with the old credit card processing technology may be liable for credit card fraud losses when a cardholder has an EMV enabled credit card, but the retailer does not have the equipment to process the transaction.
Smaller business owners who are unaware of the risks and costs of fraud may be slower to adopt the new technology. They may not deem the increased protection necessary because of their low volume of transactions or nature of their businesses. Unfortunately, failing to adopt EMV could be disastrous for some small businesses as credit card thieves may shift focus to businesses that aren't EMV-ready. A data breach could put a small retailer completely out of business.
What You Should Do If You Suspect Fraudulent Use of Your EMV Card
All the same credit card fraud protections still apply to consumers. Credit card processing networks, credit card issuers, merchants, and merchant banks will sort out which of them has to absorb the cost of fraudulent credit card transactions.
While the credit card industry has imposed “liability shift” rules for fraudulent transactions, this shift should be seamless for credit cardholders. Cardholders aren't liable for fraudulent purchases made while their credit card is in their possession and face only a maximum of $50 liability on purchases made with a lost or stolen credit card.
If you suspect fraud on your account, call your credit card issuer using the number on the back of your credit card, and they will let you know how to proceed.