Climate Change Facts and Effect on the Economy
What Has Climate Change Cost Us? What's Being Done?
Climate change is the disruption in the long-term seasonal weather patterns. It's caused by global warming. The average temperature has risen around 1 degree Celsius, or 1.9 degrees Fahrenheit, since 1880. That’s faster than at any other time in the Earth’s history.
Temperatures aren't rising uniformly. The temperatures in the Arctic and Antarctic are rising faster than those in temperate and tropical areas. As a result, portions of the polar vortex have split off and blocked the jet stream. That’s a river of wind high in the atmosphere that races from west to east at speeds up to 275 miles an hour. It’s made the jet stream wobble.
Climate change should really be called climate destabilization. It's created more extreme and frequent blizzards, heat waves, and other forms of extreme weather. This includes tornados, wildfires, hurricanes, blizzards, floods and landslides, heat waves, and droughts. It also includes violent storms, whether they be dust, hail, rain, snow, or ice.
A 2017 poll showed that 55% of Americans believe that climate change made hurricanes worse. As a result, 48% reported being afraid of climate change.
It's true that climate change is nothing new in Earth's history. But previous changes occurred over millions of years, not decades.
Global warming is the planet's response to higher levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. They create a blanket that traps the heat from the sun and sends it back to the planet’s surface. Humans caused the current crisis by burning fossil fuels that emit greenhouse gases.
As of December 2019, NASA-recorded carbon dioxide levels were 412 parts per million. The last time levels were this high was 2.6 million years ago during the Pliocene era. Back then, the Arctic was 7.7 C, or 14 F, warmer in the summer than it is now. As a result, it was only frozen during the winter. With less ice, sea levels were 30 meters, or 98 feet, higher than today. That’s enough to flood New York, London, Miami, San Francisco, and Shanghai.
Why isn’t the Earth as hot as it was then? Greenhouse gases have risen so fast that temperatures haven’t had a chance to catch up. In 1880, they were just 280 ppm.
In addition, the oceans absorbed most of the added CO2 from the atmosphere. In response, they’ve become 30% more acidic since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. This is causing a mass extinction of sea life. For example, around half of the world’s coral reefs have died in the last 30 years.
In addition to absorbing C02, the oceans have also absorbed 90% of the heat. When water heats, it expands. That’s caused rising sea levels and flooding.
The top 2,300 feet of the ocean has warmed 0.3 degrees since 1969. The last time the ocean was this warm was 100,000 years ago. Sea levels were 20 to 30 feet higher. The ocean has warmed so fast that there hasn’t been enough time for higher temperatures to melt the arctic ice caps. As it does, sea levels will catch up to where they were last time the ocean was this warm. That’s enough to flood New York, London, and Miami.
Global warming will continue even if no more greenhouse gases were emitted starting tomorrow. The temperature is reacting to the greenhouse gases that have already been emitted. To stop the effects of climate change, these gases must be absorbed from the atmosphere and put back into the ground.
On November 3, 2017, the Trump administration released a report that blamed climate change on human activity. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. sources in 2015 were:
|Electricity Generation||Coal, Natural Gas||29%|
|Commercial and Residential||Heating Oil||12%|
|Forestry||Absorbs CO2||offset 11 %|
On a per-person basis, the United States is the worst offender. In 2014, it emitted 16.2 metric tons of CO2 per person. Canada was next, at 15.1 metric tons. China was sixth, at only 7.5 metric tons emitted per person.
Since 1850, the United States has contributed 8 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide. That's a third of total greenhouse gases. The good news is that its emissions are leveling off. The bad news is that about 20% of that will remain in the atmosphere for tens of thousands of years.
The United States is one of the world’s richest countries. As a result, a recent study found that the planet's wealthiest 1 billion people emit 60% of greenhouse gases. The poorest 3 billion produce only 5%. That’s why you’ll hear people say income inequality causes climate change.
Since 1980, extreme weather has cost $1.6 trillion. Munich Re, the world's largest reinsurance firm, blamed climate change for $24 billion of losses in the California wildfires. It warned that insurance firms will have to raise premiums to cover rising costs from extreme weather. That could make insurance too expensive for most people.
Scientists estimated that, if temperatures only rose 2 C, global gross domestic product would fall 15%. If temperatures rose to 3 C, global GDP would fall 25%. If nothing is done, temperatures will rise by 4 C by 2100. Global GDP would decline by more than 30% from 2010 levels. That's worse than the Great Depression, where global trade fell 25%. The only difference is that it would be permanent.
The World Employment and Social Outlook 2018 estimated that climate change threatens 1.2 billion jobs.
The industries most at risk are agriculture, fisheries, and forestry. Maine is already seeing a decline in its lobster catches. Natural disasters have already cost 23 million working life years since 2000. On the other hand, efforts to stop climate change would create 24 million new jobs by 2030.
Climate change creates mass migration around the world. Immigrants are leaving flooded coastlines, drought-stricken farmlands, and areas of extreme natural disasters. Since 2008, extreme weather has displaced 22.5 million people according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. By 2050, climate change will force 700 million people to emigrate.
Climate change is causing mass migration around the world.
Immigrants are leaving flooded coastlines, drought-stricken farmlands, and areas of extreme natural disasters. Since 2008, extreme weather has displaced 22.5 million people according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. By 2050, climate change will force 700 million people to emigrate.
Immigration at the U.S. border will only increase as climate change worsens conditions in Latin America. The World Bank estimates that climate change could send 1.4 million people north by 2050. Drought, shifting rain patterns, and extreme weather destroys crops and leads to food insecurity. The World Food Program found that almost half of Central American immigrants left because there wasn't enough food.
In 2017, the U.S. Department of Defense reported that climate change is a “direct threat” to U.S. national security.
Climate change endangers 128 military bases. A 2018 Pentagon survey revealed that U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Md. has experienced storm surge flooding and hurricane damage. The Cape Lisburne Long Range Radar Station in Alaska has lost a seawall from extreme weather. In response, Congress asked DoD to identify the 10 most vulnerable sites and recommend solution strategies.
As America experiences more extremely hot days, food prices are rising. Corn and soybean yields in the United States plummet precipitously when temperatures rise above 84 degrees Fahrenheit. Those crops feed cattle and other meat sources. It's created spikes in beef, milk, and poultry prices. Worker productivity declines sharply, particularly for outdoor jobs. That further increases the cost of food.
A 2019 study found that a warming ocean has pushed global fish yields down 4% since 1920. That's 1.4 million metric tons. In the North Atlantic and Sea of Japan, that decline is 35%. That affects Atlantic cod, haddock, and herring. Many species are threatened with extinction. That affects the 3 billion people who rely on fish for their primary source of protein. It also affects the $100 billion fishing industry and the 56 million people employed. It especially affects the United States, which imports 90% of its seafood.
The United Nations recommended that the world limit its average temperature to 2 C above pre-industrial levels. It's already surpassed 1.5 C. Here's a timeline of what's been done:
1992. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was formed.
December 11, 1997. The United Nations adopted the Kyoto Protocol. The European Community and 37 industrialized countries promised to reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 and 2012. The first commitment was to 5% below 1990 levels. The second commitment period was from 2013 to 2020. They agreed to reduce emissions by 18% below 1990 levels. The United States never ratified it.
2008. The International Energy Administration called for countries to spend $45 trillion in the next 50 years to prevent climate change from slowing economic growth. To put this into perspective, the economic output of the entire world is only $65 billion a year.
The measures included building 32 nuclear power plants each year and reducing greenhouse gases by 50% by 2050. This would cost the world $100 billion to $200 billion a year for the next 10 years after 2008, and rise to $1 trillion to $2 trillion after that.
December 7, 2009. The Environmental Protection Agency found that concentrations of greenhouse gases threatened public health. Based on this study, the EPA finalized emission standards for cars in 2010 and trucks in 2011.
December 18, 2009. The UN Climate Summit produced the Copenhagen Accord. Countries pledged to limit global temperature increases to 2 C over the pre-industrial level. The developed countries agreed to pay $100 billion a year by 2020 to assist poor countries affected the most by climate change. That includes relocating communities hit by floods and droughts and protecting water supplies. The countries agree to provide $30 billion over the next three years.
Some countries refused to sign the agreement because the United States refused to cut more than 4% of its emissions by 2020. That foot-dragging signaled to many that Obama was not any more committed than the Bush administration.
In 2010, China promised it would reach four climate goals by 2020:
- Reduce CO2 emissions by 40% below 2005 levels. (97% achieved in 2017.)
- Increase renewable energy consumption from 9.4% to 15%. (60% achieved.)
- Increase forest stock by 1.3 billion cubic meters. (Exceeded as of 2017.)
- Increase forest coverage by 40 million hectares relative to 2005. (60% achieved.)
August 3, 2015. President Obama released the Clean Power Plan. It established state targets to reduce carbon emissions from power plants by 32% below 2005 levels. The goal is to do so by 2030. The Trump administration seeks to replace the plan with one that focuses only on emissions from coal plants.
December 18, 2015. The Paris Climate Accord was signed by 195 countries. They pledged to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 26 to 28% below 2005 levels by 2025. They also committed $3 billion in aid for poorer countries by 2020. These are most likely to suffer damage from rising sea levels and other consequences of climate change.
The accord's goal is to keep global warming from rising 2 C above pre-industrial levels. Many experts consider that the tipping point. Beyond that, and climate change becomes unstoppable.
The United States is responsible for 20% of the world's carbon emissions. It would be difficult for the other signatories to reach the accord's goal without U.S. participation. But they are trying. Sixty jurisdictions around the world have carbon taxes. China, Germany, Sweden, and Denmark are considering a tax on beef. Greenhouse gas emissions from livestock contribute 14.5% of the world's total.
Even if all countries follow the Accord, temperatures will continue to rise. The atmosphere is still reacting to the CO2 that's already been pumped into it. Greenhouse gases have been added so quickly that temperatures haven't caught up yet.
As a result, measures need to be stricter to reverse global warming. The Climate Impact Lab predicts major cities will see many days above 95-degree Fahrenheit. By 2100, Washington D.C. will experience 29 extremely hot days each year. That's quadruple the average of seven it experienced from 1986 to 2005.
November 4, 2016. The Paris Agreement went into force as 55 members ratified the agreement. They make up 55% of global emissions.
June 1, 2017. President Trump announced the United States would withdraw from the Paris accord. Trump said he wanted to negotiate a better deal. Leaders from Germany, France, and Italy said the accord is non-negotiable. China and India joined the other leaders in stating they remain committed to the accord. Some have argued that America's withdrawal from a leadership position creates a vacuum that China will readily fill. The United States cannot legally exit until November 1, 2020. This will make it an issue in the next presidential election.
Business leaders from Tesla, General Electric, and Goldman Sachs said this will give foreign competitors an edge in clean energy industries. U.S. companies need government support and subsidies in these industries to pay for research and bring costs down.
China is already taking the lead in electric vehicles. Almost half of the world's plug-in electric vehicles are sold in China. Its regulations and subsidies drive consumers away from gasoline-powered cars. China wants to reduce pollution. It also wants to reduce reliance on foreign oil. But more importantly, it wants to improve the country's automakers. China's car market is so large, it's forcing foreign carmakers to improve their electric vehicle production.
October 10, 2017. The Trump administration proposed to repeal the Clean Power Plan.
November 8, 2017. The European Union agreed to cut carbon-dioxide emissions by new vehicles by 30% between 2021 and 2030.
December 12, 2017. French President Emmanuel Macron convened 50 world leaders to the One Planet Summit. Trump was not invited because he withdrew from the accord. The summit focused on how to finance the global transition away from fossil fuels.
May 15, 2018. Alaska began crafting its own plan to stop climate change. Even though it is a major oil producer, it's feeling the effects of global warming. The permafrost is thawing, destabilizing roads, and buildings that sit on it. Protective sea ice is melting, allowing powerful waves to erode Alaskan shores. As a result, 31 coastal towns may need to relocate.
The world's 1,000 biggest corporations contribute 12% of greenhouse-gas emissions. In 2017, 89% have plans to cut those emissions. But it's not enough to reach the U.N.'s target of 2 degrees Celsius. So far, 14% of the companies have goals that align with the target. Another 30% pledge do so in the next two years. Investment firms, such as HSBC Holdings and Goldman Sachs, have begun targeting more low-carbon businesses.
Republican Newt Gingrich, the former Speaker of the House, argued for the importance of supporting entrepreneurial environmental solutions in his 2007 book, "A Contract with the Earth." Pressure on the market forces that got the atmosphere into trouble is the best solution to clean it up.
Seven Steps You Can Take Today to Stop Climate Change
First, plant trees and other vegetation to halt deforestation. You can also donate to charities that plant trees. For example, Eden Reforestation hires local residents to plant trees in Madagascar and Africa for $0.10 a tree. It also gives the very poor people an income, rehabilitates their habitat, and saves species from mass extinction.
Second, become carbon neutral. The average American emits 16 tons of CO2 a year. According to Arbor Environmental Alliance, 100 mangrove trees can absorb 2.18 metric tons of CO2 annually. The average American would need to plant 734 mangrove trees to offset one year’s worth of CO2. At $0.10 a tree, that would cost $73.
The United Nations program Climate Neutral Now also allows you to offset your emissions by purchasing credits. These credits fund green initiatives, such as wind energy or solar power plants in developing countries.
Third, enjoy a plant-based diet with less meat. Cows create methane, a greenhouse gas. Monoculture crops to feed the cows causes deforestation. The Drawdown Coalition estimated those forests would have absorbed 39.3 gigatons of carbon dioxide. Greenpeace points out it's one of the best global warming solutions because the production of these food items creates 50% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
Similarly, avoid products using palm oil. Most of its production comes from Malaysia and Indonesia. Tropical forests and carbon-rich swamps are cleared for its plantations. Avoid products with generic vegetable oil as an ingredient.
Fourth, pressure corporations to disclose and act on their climate-related risks. Since 1988, 100 companies are responsible for more than 70% of greenhouse gas emissions. The worst are ExxonMobil, Shell, BP, and Chevron. These four companies contribute 6.49% alone.
Fifth, reduce food waste. The Drawdown Coalition estimated that 26.2 gigatons of CO2 emissions would be avoided if food waste was reduced by 50%.
Sixth, cut fossil-fuel use. Where available, use more mass transit, biking, and electric vehicles. Or keep your car but maintain it. Keep the tires inflated, change the air filter, and drive under 60 miles per hour.
Seventh, hold the government accountable. Each year, $2 trillion is invested in building new energy infrastructure. The International Energy Administration said that governments control 70% of that.
Similarly, vote for candidates who promise a solution to climate change. The Sunrise Movement is pressuring candidates to adopt a Green New Deal. There are 500 candidates who have vowed not to accept campaign contributions from the oil industry.
Scientists predict that by 2050 temperatures will have caught up with today’s level of CO2. That’s when there will be no Arctic ice in the summer. The dark ocean that replaces it will absorb even more heat. It will create a chain reaction that will further heat the earth’s temperature even if we stop emitting additional greenhouse gases.
Emissions have increased by 4% since 1990. But 2015 levels dropped slightly from the prior year. Power plants began switching from coal to natural gas and a warmer winter reduced demand for heating oil.
There are no safe places in a climate change future. Climate destabilization means that the world will be pummeled by extreme weather. Mass extinction has already hurt agriculture. Bats and birds that pollinate plants are down 17%. A United Nations report estimates that 75% of the world’s food crops rely on pollinators to some extent. If these species go extinct, so does almost 8% of the world’s food species. A third of the fishing areas are overharvested. Everyone will be affected in ways that are difficult to imagine now.
The Bottom Line
Climate change is a global reality that must be addressed now. The colossal quantities of carbon dioxide pumped into the atmosphere over the past century are warming temperatures at a seriously rapid rate. Because of this, flooding, extreme weather, wildfires, and other natural disasters are occurring more frequently and at a greater degree of intensity than ever.
Decisive, committed actions must be taken today to avert an added temperature rise exceeding 2 C or 35.6 F. This is the world’s tipping point before permanent catastrophes descend and change life as we all know it. Today, we only have 0.5 C leeway before this happens. It’s time to punch that red alert button to push everyone in the world to lower their carbon emissions now before it becomes too late.
NASA. “Climate Change: How Do We Know?” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
NASA. "Global Climate Change," Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Washington Post. “This Ancient Climate Catastrophe is Our Best Clue About Earth’s Future,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Weather Channel. “The Polar Vortex Has Fallen Apart, Which is Likely to Unleash a Much Colder End to January,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Washington Post. “Majority of Americans Now Say Climate Change Makes Hurricanes More Intense,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Chapman University. “America’s Top Fears 2017,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
NASA. “Carbon Dioxide,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Scientific American. “Ice-Free Arctic in Pliocene, Last Time CO2 Levels Above 400 PPM,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Independent. “More than 90 Percent of World’s Coral Reefs Will Die by 2050,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Los Angeles Times. “The Last Time the Oceans Got This Warm, Sea Levels Were 20 to 30 Feet Higher Than They Are Today,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Washington Post. “Trump Administration Releases Report Finding ‘No Convincing Alternative Explanation’ for Climate Change," Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency. “Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The New York Times. “The U.S. is the Biggest Carbon Polluter in History, It Just Walked Away from the Paris Climate Deal,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Yale, Climate Connections. “Common Climate Misconceptions: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. “Holocene Variability and Anthropocene Rates of Change,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
National Centers for Environmental Information. “Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters Overview,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Guardian. “Climate Change Could Make Insurance Too Expensive for Most People,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Nature.com. “Large Potential Reduction in Economic Damages Under UN Mitigation Targets,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
International Labour Organization. “Greening with Jobs, World Employment and Social Outlook 2018,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The New York Times. “Climate Change Brought a Lobster Boom. Now It Could be a Bust,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Climate Home News. “ILO: Green Economy Can Create 24 Million Jobs by 2030,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
United Nations. “Green Economy Could Create 24 Million Jobs,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The New York Times. “Mexico City, Parched and Sinking, Faces a Water Crisis,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The New York Times. “A Warming World Creates Desperate People,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The New York Times. “Mexico City, Parched and Sinking, Faces a Water Crisis,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The New York Times. “A Warming World Creates Desperate People,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The World Bank. “Internal Climate Migration in Latin America,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Center for Climate and Security. “Defense Bill Passes with Climate Change and National Security Provision,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Washington Post. “Pentagon Survey Details Effects of Climate Change on Military Sites,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. “Nonlinear Temperature Effects Indicate Severe Damages to U.S. Crop Yields under Climate Change,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Grist. “Warming Oceans Have Already Harmed the World’s Fish Supply,” Accessed Jan. 11, 2020.
Barron’s. “Climate Change is Already Reshaping Commercial Fishing,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Scientific American. “Earth Flirts with a 1.5-Degree Celsius Global Warming Threshold,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
United Nations. “Kyoto Protocol – Targets for the First Commitment Period,” Accessed Jan. 20, 2020.
The New York Times. “Nations Urged to Spend $45 Trillion to Battle Carbon Emissions,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. “Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under the Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
United Nations Climate Change. “Information Provided by Parties to the Convention Relating to the Copenhagen Accord,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Vanity Fair. “The Ugly Truth About Obama’s ‘Copenhagen Accord,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
World Institute Resources. “China Making Progress on Climate Goals Faster than Expected,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Environmental Defense Fund. “The Clean Power Plan,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Union of Concerned Scientists. “The Clean Power Plan,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Vice. “EPA Submits Proposal to Replace Obama’s Clean Power Plan," Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The New York Times. “The Paris Climate Deal: What You Need to Know,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Bloomberg. “Taxes on Meat Could Join Carbon and Sugar to Help Limit Emissions,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The New York Times. “Trump Will Withdraw U.S. From Paris Climate Agreement,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Wall Street Journal. “China, With Methodical Discipline, Conjures a Market for Electric Cars,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
WSJ City. “EU Unveils Proposal to Cut Vehicles' CO2 Emissions,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Climate Finance Day. “Discover the 12 Commitments of the One Planet Summit,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Time. “50 World Leaders Will Discuss Climate Change in Paris. Donald Trump Wasn't Invited,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The New York Times. “’Impossible to Ignore’: Why Alaska is Crafting a Plan to Fight Climate Change,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Wall Street Journal. “How Companies Are Pushing Ahead on Climate-Change Targets,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Amazon. “A Contract with the Earth,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Eden Reforestation Projects. “Madagascar,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Union of Concerned Scientists. “Each Country's Share of CO2 Emissions,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Huffpost. “Planting Trees: The Many Benefits of Going Green,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
United Nations Climate Change. “Climate Neutral Now,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
United Nations Carbon Offset Platform. "All Projects," Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
National Geographic. “Is America’s Appetite for Meat Bad for the Planet?” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Project Drawdown. “Plant-Rich Diet,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Greenpeace. “Less Is More,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Union of Concerned Scientists. “Palm Oil,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Gaiam. “6 Ways to Avoid Palm Oil (And Why You Should),” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Forbes. “Corporations Are Starting to Perform on Climate Issues, Investors Say,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Guardian. “Just 100 Companies Responsible for 71% of Global Emissions, Study Says,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
TruthDig. “CNN Perpetuates Destructive Climate Change Myth,” Accessed Jan. 20, 2021.
Project Drawdown. “Reduced Food Waste,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Project Drawdown. “Mass Transit,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
IEA. “World Energy Outlook 2018 Examines Future Patterns of Global Energy System at a Time of Increasing Uncertainties,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
Sunrise Movement. "We are Sunrise," Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Nation. “Climate Change Is Our Most Critical National-Security Challenge,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The New York Times. “In the Arctic, the Old Ice is Disappearing,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency. “Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2015,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Guardian. “World's Food Supply Under 'Severe Threat' from Loss of Biodiversity,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.
The Guardian. “Decline of Bees Poses Potential Risks to Major Crops, Says UN,” Accessed Jan. 21, 2020.