ChexSystems and Bad Check Databases
Running out of money in your checking account causes several problems. One issue that surprises people is the risk of landing on a list of people who write bad checks. Several databases, including ChexSystems, track your checking behavior. After several bad checks leading to negative records, you could eventually have trouble opening a new checking account.
Bad Check Lists
Several consumer reporting companies track your checking account activity. If you overdraw (or go below zero) in your checking account more than just occasionally, those databases can create problems for you. The federal government regulates most of those services under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), just like the three major credit reporting agencies. Two types of events that can cause trouble are:
- Bouncing a check: When you write a check, but it is returned unpaid after somebody tries to deposit or cash the check
- Insufficient funds: When charges to your account (including checks you write, as well as electronic funds transfers or other transactions) bring your account balance below zero
ChexSystems is just one of the companies that track your banking behavior. It's primarily used by banks and credit unions when evaluating whether or not to open a checking account for you.
Check verification services can also keep records of your check writing activity. Merchants subscribe to services that alert them to potential problems before they accept a check from a customer. TeleCheck, Certegy, Early Warning Systems, and CrossCheck are other popular databases for merchants, banks, and credit unions.
How to Avoid Bouncing Checks
To avoid bouncing checks or overdrawing your bank account:
- Keep a safety cushion of cash in your checking account.
- Start balancing your checkbook regularly.
- See if alternative payment methods work any better. For example, a debit card will be rejected immediately if you have insufficient funds in your account.
- Sign up for alerts so you know when your account balance is running low.
What ChexSystems Does
ChexSystems keeps records on checking and savings account behavior. The information is primarily about people who spend more money than they have available in their checking accounts, as well as those who violate other bank policies. If you've bounced checks in the past or you owe money to a bank, there's a good chance that you're in the ChexSystems database.
Banks and credit unions provide information about your banking behavior to ChexSystems, and other sources contribute as well. Then, financial institutions buy reports from ChexSystems to find out if you’ve had problems at other banks.
The main ChexSystems report only contains negative information. In other words, you have an entry in that report only if you have bounced checks or had overdrafts in your bank accounts. If you don’t appear in a ChexSystems report, that’s a good thing. This is different from credit reports for borrowing, which look better when you show a long history of borrowing and repaying on time.
Negative entries appear on your ChexSystems report for five years or until the bank or credit union that reported the problem asks to have it removed. However, you can dispute any erroneous entries and get them removed with sufficient proof of a mistake or identity theft. Banks can also update records to show that you no longer have outstanding debts, but the historical records remain for five years.
ChexSystems does not determine whether or not you’re allowed to open a bank account. Instead, banks and credit unions make that decision based on their policies. ChexSystems provides historical data to financial institutions, and you’ll have better luck if your ChexSystems report is clean
What to Do if You Can't Open a Checking Account
If your ChexSystems report makes it hard to open an account, you may need a bank or credit union that is willing to overlook ChexSystems entries.
Not all banks use ChexSystems reports. Find one, and they won’t turn you away based on the contents of those reports. Small local banks and credit unions are a good place to start.
Sometimes it’s possible to plead your case. Explain what happened with your checking accounts in the past and why you don’t expect the same events to repeat. Again, your chances of speaking with somebody about this are probably best with a small institution.
Some banks, by policy, are happy to open accounts for people on bad check lists. Known as “second chance accounts,” these institutions may limit your freedom to spend, but at least you can sign up for direct deposit, keep your money safe, and earn interest. Over time, you can work your way back to a fully-functional bank account.
Request Scores and Reports
As with all consumer reporting agencies, ChexSystems is required to provide you with a free copy of your report each year, free of charge. For details on ordering a report, visit the ChexSystems website.
ChexSystems also creates a Consumer Score, which is a number designed to predict your future behavior. You can also order your score, which is available at no charge as of this writing (but consumer reporting companies are allowed to charge fees for scores).
You have the right to order free reports from other check verification services and databases as well.