CDOs, or collateralized debt obligations, are financial tools banks use to repackage individual loans into a product sold to investors on the secondary market. These packages consist of auto loans, credit card debt, mortgages, or corporate debt. They are called collateralized because the promised repayments of the loans are the collateral that gives the CDOs their value.
What Are Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs)?
Collateralized debt obligations are a particular kind of derivative—any financial product that derives its value from another underlying asset. Derivatives, like put options, call options, and futures contracts, have long been used in the stock and commodities markets.
- Alternate name: Collateralized Loan Obligations (CLOs) are CDOs made up of bank debt.
- Acronym: CDO
How CDOs Work
CDOs are called asset-backed commercial paper if the package consists of corporate debt. Banks call them mortgage-backed securities if the loans are mortgages. If the mortgages are made to those with a less than prime credit history, they are called subprime mortgages.
Banks sell CDOs to investors for three reasons:
- The funds they receive give them more cash to make new loans.
- It moves the loan's risk of default from the bank to the investors.
- CDOs give banks new and more profitable products to sell—boosting share prices and managers' bonuses.
How CDOs Grew the Economy
The spread of CDOs is one reason the U.S. economy was robust until 2007. The invention of CDOs also helped create new jobs.
While CDOs fell out of favor after the financial crisis of 2007, they began to creep back into the market in 2012.
Unlike a mortgage on a house, a CDO is not a product you can touch or see to find out its value. Instead, a computer model creates it. Thousands of college and higher-level graduates went to work in Wall Street banks as "quant jocks.” Their job was to write computer programs that would model the value of the bundle of loans that made up a CDO. Thousands of salespeople were also hired to find investors for these new products.
Adjustable-rate mortgages offered "teaser" low-interest rates for the first three to five years. Higher rates kicked in after that. Borrowers took the loans, knowing they could only afford to pay the low rates. They expected to sell the house before the higher rates were triggered.
The quant jocks designed CDO tranches to take advantage of these different rates. One tranche held only the low-interest portion of mortgages. Another tranche offered just the part with the higher rates. That way, conservative investors could take the low-risk, low-interest tranche, while aggressive investors could take the higher-risk, higher-interest tranche. All went well as long as housing prices and the economy continued to grow.
What Went Wrong With CDOs
Unfortunately, the extra liquidity created an asset bubble in housing, credit cards, and auto debt. Housing prices skyrocketed beyond their actual value. People bought homes so they could sell them. The easy availability of debt meant people used their credit cards too much. That drove credit card debt to almost $1 trillion in 2008.
The banks that sold the CDOs didn't worry about people defaulting on their debt. They had sold the loans to other investors, who now owned them. That made them less disciplined in adhering to strict lending standards. Banks made loans to borrowers who weren't credit-worthy. That ensured disaster.
CDOs became too complicated which made things even worse. The buyers didn't know the value of what they were buying.
Buyers relied on their trust of the bank selling the CDO. They didn't do enough research to be sure the package was worth the price.
The research wouldn't have done much good because even the banks didn't know. The computer models based the CDOs' value on the assumption that housing prices would continue to go up. If they fell, the computers couldn't price the product.
This opaqueness and the complexity of CDOs created a market panic in 2007. Banks realized they couldn't price the product or the assets they were still holding.
Overnight, the market for CDOs disappeared. Banks refused to lend each other money because they didn't want more CDOs on their balance sheet in return.
It was like a financial game of musical chairs when the music stopped. This panic caused the 2007 banking crisis.
The first CDOs to go south were the mortgage-backed securities. When housing prices started to drop in 2006, the mortgages of homes bought in 2005 were soon upside-down. That created the subprime mortgage crisis. The Federal Reserve assured investors it was confined to housing. In fact, some welcomed it and said that housing had been in a bubble and needed to cool down.
What they didn't realize was how derivatives multiplied the effect of any bubble and any subsequent downturn. Not only banks were left holding the bag, but so were pension funds, mutual funds, and corporations. It wasn't until the Federal Reserve Bank and the Treasury started buying these CDOs that a semblance of functioning returned to the financial markets.
The Dodd Frank-Wall Street Reform Act of 2010 was adopted with the intention of preventing the same sort of exposure that led to bank collapse during the crisis. It was weakened in 2017 when small banks were removed from coverage and the Trump administration has sought to eliminate it altogether.
- Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs) are bundles of debt that banks package for resale to investors.
- They are difficult to evaluate because all the debts are lumped together.
- CDOs at first drove the economy before they escalated beyond control and led to the crash of 2007.
- CDOs had fallen out of favor as an investment vehicle, but by 2012 had already started coming back under somewhat different structures.