Black Wednesday: George Soros' Bet Against Britain
How George Soros Broke the Bank of England
George Soros became one of the most famous currency traders in the world, thanks to his timely and brave bet against the Bank of England in 1992 on what became known as Black Wednesday. With costs of around £3.3 billion, Britain's central bank was unable to defend itself from an attack in the currency markets, and Mr. Soros made an estimated $1 billion in profit as a result.
Setting the Stage for Black Wednesday
The European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) was set up in March of 1979 to reduce exchange rate variability and stabilize monetary policy across Europe before introducing a common currency that would eventually be known as the euro. Simply put, the ERM set an upper and lower margin in which exchange rates could vary, known as a semi-peg.
Britain initially declined to join the ERM when it originated, but later adopted a semi-official policy that shadowed the Deutsche Mark. In October of 1990, the country decided to join the ERM, preventing its currency from fluctuating more than 6 percent in either direction by intervening in the currency markets with countertrades.
Black Wednesday's Underlying Causes
When Britain joined the ERM, the rate was set to 2.95 Deutsche Marks per Pound Sterling with a 6 percent permissible move in either direction. The problem was that the country's inflation rate was high, interest rates were over 13 percent, and the country's economic boom was far into a period of unsustainable growth, which set the stage for a bust period.
Currency traders took note of these underlying problems and began shorting the Pound Sterling. More specifically, they bought one currency, such as the Deutsche Mark, using the Pound Sterling. This allowed them to profit as the Pound Sterling fell in value by comparison to the other currency. George Soros was one of these bearish currency traders, amassing a short position of more than $10 billion worth of Pound Sterling.
Black Wednesday and Its Aftermath
The UK's prime minister and cabinet members authorized the spending of billions in Pounds Sterling as an attempt to contain the short selling by speculators. Moreover, the British government announced that it would raise its interest rates from 10 percent to 15 percent to try and attract currency traders looking for greater yield on their currency holdings.
Unfortunately, currency speculators didn't believe the government would make good on these promises and continued shorting the Pound Sterling. After an emergency meeting among top officials, the country was ultimately forced to withdraw from the ERM, to let the market revalue its currency to more appropriate, lower levels.
The country was arguably thrown into a recession afterward, with many British citizens referring to the ERM as the "Eternal Recession Machine." While the government lost a lot of money, some politicians are glad the ERM disaster occurred, since it paved the way for more conservative polices that would ultimately be credited for reviving the economy.
Lessons from Black Wednesday
Black Wednesday teaches a number of important lessons to both currency traders and governments, including some lessons that may surprise readers. For instance, statistical data suggests that the British economy was growing faster in the ERM than published figures suggest, and the resulting recession may have instead been due to the aftermath of the Lawson boom—a period of economic growth that preceded 1992.
Lessons for governments might include:
- Don't dictate interest rates: The ERM interest rates were set for Germany when they should have been set by Europe for Europe.
- Pick your fights against speculators: Taking extreme measures to counteract decisive market action often becomes a futile and expensive endeavor.
Lessons for currency traders could include:
- Nothing's impossible: The departure of Britain from the ERM was unthinkable to many during the crisis, but even governments make big mistakes.
- Be ready for extreme measures: Britain's decision to raise interest rates from 10 percent to 12 percent to 15 percent in a single day demonstrates potential government resolve.
Black Wednesday is widely known as the day that billionaire currency trader George Soros broke the Bank of England and made over $1 billion. But, the real lessons are found by analyzing the underlying causes of the crisis and how they quickly led to problems. By understanding these issues, central banks can avoid future crises sparked by regulatory constraints.
Office for National Statistics. "Special Events in GDP 1970 to 2016: 1992," Expand "Read More." Accessed Sept. 28, 2020.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. "The Vulnerability of Pegged Exchange Rates: The British Pound in the ERM," Pages 41-45. Accessed Sept. 28, 2020.
Bank of England. "Official Bank Rate History." Accessed Sept. 28, 2020.
Shelagh Heffernan. "Modern Banking," Page 410. John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. "The Vulnerability of Pegged Exchange Rates: The British Pound in the ERM," Pages 51-55. Accessed Sept. 28, 2020.
CiteSeerX. "Monetary Policy in the UK," Page 120. Accessed Sept. 28, 2020.
JStor. "The Changing Geography of Recession: Analyses of Local Unemployment Time Series," Page 142. Accessed Sept 28, 2020.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. "The Vulnerability of Pegged Exchange Rates: The British Pound in the ERM," Page 44. Accessed Sept. 28, 2020.