Tips for 401(k) Investing: How to Get the Most Out of Retirement Plans
Making After-Tax Contributions to Your 401(k) Plan
Investing in a 401(k) plan is essential for the vast majority of American citizens to achieve a successful and happy retirement. By managing their plans well, many investors have been able to enjoy early and wealthy retirements. Here are 10 of the best tips for 401(k) saving and investing.
Start Your 401(k) Contributions Early
It's never too early or too late to start saving in a 401(k) plan. Even if you're in your 40s or 50s, there's still time to build a significant nest egg for retirement. Therefore, there's not a magical age to start saving in a 401(k) plan but rather this simple savings advice: The best time to start saving in a 401(k) plan is yesterday, the second-best time to start saving in a 401(k) plan is today, and the worst time to start saving in a 401(k) is tomorrow.
Maximize Employer Matching Contributions
Many 401(k) plans offer an employer match, which is just how it sounds: If you make contributions to your 401(k), your employer may make matching contributions up to a certain maximum. The general rule that a good financial advisor may give you is to contribute at least enough to your 401(k) to get the match.
For example, if your employer offers a match of 50 cents for every dollar you contribute, up to a maximum of 6% of your pay, you'll want to contribute at least 6%. This matching formula would equate to a 3% pay raise (50% of 6% is 3%). That's a 50 percent rate of return before you even begin investing! Do not leave this money sitting on the table.
Take Advantage of Compounding Interest
The sooner you start saving in your 401(k), the sooner you can take advantage of the power of compound interest. An example of two different savers explains it best: Saver 1 starts saving $5,000 per year in a 401(k) at age 25 and continues for 10 years until age 35 when they stop. That's a total saving amount of $50,000. Saver 2 starts saving the same amount of $5,000 but waits until age 35 and continues for 30 years until age 65.
That’s a total of $150,000 out-of-pocket savings expense for them. Assuming a 7% rate of return on each of their 401(k) investment portfolios, which one ends up with the most at age 65? Because of getting an early start, and thanks to the power of compounding interest, Saver #1 wins, after only saving for 10 years, with a balance of over $600,000. Saver 2 ends up with about $540,000 although they saved for 30 years.
Because of compound interest, which harnesses the time value of money, Saver 1 "won" the 401(k) savings contest. Making compounding even more powerful, the earnings in a 401(k) plan are not taxed while in the account. This allows the interest to keep compounding without taxes slowing it down, as it would in a taxable account.
Pick the Best Savings Rate for You
There is no one-size-fits-all 401(k) savings rate for everyone. Therefore the best amount to save in a 401(k) plan is however much you can afford to contribute without hurting your other financial goals and obligations.
For example, if you can't pay your rent or reduce your credit card debt because your 401(k) contributions are too high, you are saving too much! Oftentimes, 10 to 15% is a good amount to save in a 401(k) plan but you should at least invest enough to get any matching contributions your employer offers. A common match is 50% up to 6% of your contribution rate (often called a "deferral percentage").
In translation, if you contribute less than 6% of your pay, you're not getting the full match. But if you're contributing 6%, your employer is adding on 50% of that, which is 3% of your pay. That translates into a total of 9% of your income going into your 401(k); Just don't leave money laying on the table, so to speak.
Properly Assess Your Risk Tolerance
One of the biggest mistakes investors make in a 401(k) plan is failing to identify which mutual funds are best for them. More specifically, some investors take too little risk, which means their 401(k) savings might grow too slowly, and some savers invest too aggressively and sell their mutual funds in a panic when a major market decline comes.
To find out how to find the best balance of risk and return, 401(k) investors should complete what's called a risk tolerance questionnaire, which will identify a risk profile and suggest mutual fund types and allocations accordingly.
Diversify Your 401(k) Mutual Fund Portfolio
When building a portfolio of mutual funds, the most important aspect of the process is diversification, which means to spread risk across different investment types. Most 401(k) plans offer several mutual funds in different categories. The best way to understand the concept of diversification when building a portfolio is with a good visual. Here's an example of a moderate portfolio, which is a "medium risk" mix of mutual funds appropriate for most investors, using funds typically found in a 401(k) plan:
- 40% Large-cap stock (Index)
- 10% Small-cap stock
- 15% Foreign Stock
- 30% Intermediate-term Bond
- 05% Cash/Money Market/Stable Value
Follow the Best 401(k) Management Practices
Once you've set up your deferral percentage and selected your investments, you can go on about your work and your life and let the 401(k) do its job. However, there are a few simple maintenance tips to follow:
Rebalance Your Portfolio
When you rebalance your 401(k), you are returning your current investment allocations back to the original investment allocations. Therefore rebalancing will require buying and/or selling shares of some or all of your mutual funds to bring the allocation percentages back into balance. For a simple example, let's say you originally chose 4 mutual funds and set the allocations to 25% each. After one year, one mutual fund grew to 30% of your portfolio, another declined to 20% and the other two stayed around 25%. To rebalance, you will sell shares of the fund that grew in value, buy shares of the fund that declined in value, and leave the others alone. This has an effect of "buying low and selling high," which is what the best investors do regularly. A good frequency for rebalancing is once per year. Most 401(k) plans allow for automatic rebalancing or an easy way to do it online.
Increase Savings Rate
When you get a raise, give your 401(k) a raise! For example, let's say your employer gives you get a promotion that comes with a 5% raise in salary. Immediately increase your 401(k) deferral by at least 1%. That way you'll still enjoy a raise but you'll also increase your retirement savings.
Avoid Making Premature Withdrawals
Most 401(k) plans offer either a hardship withdrawal option and a loan option to take money out of your plan prior to retirement (with certain limitations). A withdrawal will cost you a 10% early withdrawal penalty on money taken out prior to age 59.5. If you take a loan, you'll have to pay it back with interest (or satisfy the loan balance if you terminate employment prior to paying off the loan).
The Balance does not provide tax, investment, or financial services and advice. The information is being presented without consideration of the investment objectives, risk tolerance, or financial circumstances of any specific investor and might not be suitable for all investors. Past performance is not indicative of future results. Investing involves risk including the possible loss of principal.
IRS. "Retirement Topics - 401(k) and Profit-Sharing Plan Contribution Limits." Accessed Dec. 10, 2019.
IRS. "Definitions." Accessed Dec.10, 2019.
Investor.gov. "Assessing Your Risk Tolerance." Accessed Dec. 10, 2019.
Investor.gov. "What Is Diversification?" Accessed Dec. 10, 2019.
American Association of Individual Investors. "AAII Asset Allocation Models." Accessed Dec. 10, 2019.
Investor.gov. "Investor Bulletin: Year-End Investment Considerations for Individual Investors." Accessed Dec. 10, 2019.
IRS. "401(k) Resource Guide - Plan Participants - General Distribution Rules." Accessed Dec. 10, 2019.